Bratach Dubh: Collected 2
Armed Struggle in Italy ’76-’78
Anarchist Pamphlet 4
Ardent Press reprint
Cover design by 1 882 distro
Published by Aragorn Moser and Leona Benton
Printed at “The Compound”
1818 Carleton St. Berkeley, CA 94703-1908
Introduction to the 2nd Edition 1
Introduction to the ist Edition 3
Our Role in the Present Conflict 11
Diffused Urban Guerrilla 16
Prison Revolts 34
Prisons, Courts and the Legal Hierarchy 43
Victims of Repression 53
Sweat Labour 65
Politicians and Party Headquarters 68
Trades Unions 86
Factories and the Industrial Hierarchy 88
State Offices 110
Heroin Pushers 116
Attacks Against the Police 122
Restructuring Repression 129
Armed Struggle— Some Reflections 131
Towards the Generalisation of
Armed Struggle 142
On the Problem of Armed Struggle 154
Forward Comrades! 158
Introduction to the 2nd Edition
The years covered by this pamphlet mark an important
period for the whole of the movement against capital.
It was at this time that the antagonist movement in
Italy finally shed all its taboos concerning destruction,
violence, and the use of arms against the class enemy.
It became normal to respond to the humiliation and
tyranny of capitalism with the arms considered to be
the most effective for doing so, and acts of violence
by bosses, police, and fascists found an immediate re-
sponse both in the streets and in specific retaliatory
actions against them.
During this period a vast quantity of groups and
struggle organisations emerged, convinced of the need
to extend and heighten the armed struggle against
capital. Many of these, in keeping with their lenin-
ist convictions, reached the conclusion that capital-
ism's final crisis had arrived, that victory was near and
that it was time to fight the State on its own terms,
in closed militaristic organisations (the armed wing
of the proletariat) aimed at taking over and directing
first the struggle, then the State. Their objectives were
to recruit comrades into their organisations — the only
ones entitled to carry out this historic task accord-
ing to them — and to raise the level of the struggle to
the ultimate moment of victory. When their analysis
proved to be mistaken (that the end of capitalism was
not imminent, instead it was going through a difficult
phase of re-structuring), they began negotiating with
the enemy to have their prisoners released, even at the
cost of dissociating themselves from the struggle and
from revolution itself.
But there was another dimension present in the
struggle at the end of the seventies, one consisting of
autonomous actions carried out by affinity groups
formed for the duration of the action itself. At the time
when we first published this counter-information we
did so in order to make known and extend the whole
dimension of armed struggle, and for this reason we
chose to limit our criticism of the forms that struggle
took. In reprinting it we are doing so with another
aim: that of contributing to the struggle's qualitative
development. Now that the need for an armed attack
against capital and the State has become widely accept-
ed amongst comrades, it is time to work to extend the
qualitative aspect that is spreading today using meth-
ods including sabotage against the structures of capital.
This sabotage, usually carried out by small groups of
comrades who have come together on the basis of af-
finity, is based on simple means that are available to
anyone, and contains a strong element of creativity and
joy in the knowledge that it is simple and effective to
attack what is oppressing us directly, and that there is
no need for endless documents of ideological justifica-
tion for doing so. This does not mean that arms in the
traditional sense of the word are no longer relevant or
should be considered something to be used at some
time far off in the future. It is important to reflect on
all these problems in order to develop and strengthen
an effective and intelligent revolutionary perspective.
Introduction to the ist Edition
The key to the future is rebellion. As the multination-
als spread their hold throughout the world, changing
their hosts as the demands of (overall) profit direct
them, the trade unions are showing themselves to be
obsolete as organisations of struggle, and actually di-
rect participants in capitalism's plan of restructuring.
The advanced democratic State is ready to patron-
ise inquests in any sphere: prison reform, ecologi-
cal problems, debates on abortion, etc., in order to
handle dissent and render it a manageable dynamic
within the global project of social control, and some
of the modern European States have shown them-
selves to be more astute in this prevision than others.
We would say that Italy, although similar to Brit-
ain at an economic level where it shares its place as
the weakest of the advanced industrialised countries,
has less sophisticated means at its disposal with which
to control the growing strata of those pushed to the
margins of the process of production. In other words,
it is not that Italy is a country in a more acute state of
economic crisis than Britain, nor that, because here
in Britain we do not read daily reports in our news-
papers about the burning of factory manager's cars, or
the laming of journalists, that a situation of revolt at
mass level does not also exist.
It is not the politicised minority who create re-
volt, but the existence of exploitation. What we can
say is that there is not a clearly politicised minor-
ity in Britain who, drawing their direction from the
mass, are seeking to give it a wider perspective, that of
generalised rebellion. Many factors come into play in
this situation in our opinion, not least the one already
mentioned: the State's capacity to recuperate margin-
al groups and give them a ‘socially fulfilling’ task such
as involvement in adventure playgrounds, local hous-
ing, organised squatting projects, etc., allowing them a
certain autonomy of movement, and very little excess
energy for such activities as revolution.
But we cannot blame the State for everything.
We feel there exists a certain aristocratic tendency
within the movement in Britain that denies the im-
portance of illegal action at grass roots level, and still
persists in seeing rebellion in terms of the workers'
movement. To this extent we feel the following in-
formation, however incomplete, is a contribution to
forming a more realistic vision of where the struggle
The chronology that follows is an important ele-
ment of counter-information concerning the situa-
tion of struggle in Italy. We do not claim this to be
a fully representative picture. Many acts of rebellion
never reach the press either because they are sup-
pressed or because, taken on their individual merit
they are too insignificant, as in the case of absentee-
ism, individual sabotage, and self-appropriation of
goods. And it is in these areas more and more that
the minority groups are finding the message that an
intensification of the struggle is necessary. We hope,
however, that something will emerge from this vast
collection of data: that armed struggle in Italy today
does not lie in the hands of a few professional mili-
tants, but that it is a way of being, a way of everyday
life for hundreds of thousands of people, and that area
is forever widening its field of attack.
The young people who have been pushed to the
margins of Italian capitalism are creating their own
theory with their actions. They have realised not
only that there is nothing for them within the pres-
ent structure, but also that they want nothing from it.
They want to destroy it in every form it presents itself,
and this involves not only institutions, but the people
who make them function as such. Similar attitudes
are also re-emerging among the employed workers
within the context of the factory, following a period
of relative stasis since the struggles of 1973. The result
of this has been to create a situation of ideological
crisis within the organised Left. On the one hand, the
mass refusal of the system has not left the retrograde
Left out of their radical critique; on the other these
same groups are finding themselves confronted with a
living situation of rebellion, leaving their abstract the-
ories of economic cycles in the cold. They are faced
with the pertinent question:What are we going to do?
Unfortunately in many cases the answer has been one
that has been found in the past by groups of a Stalinist
character: that of policing the spontaneous movement.
But it is not possible to draw a simple line of de-
marcation between ‘authoritarian’ groups that develop
in such and such a way, and ‘libertarian’ groups that
automatically find the truth of the moment in the
mass struggle. Any group or tendency that considers
itself'carrier of truth’, and tries to impose its ideology
on the situation, automatically takes the side of the
counter-revolution, no matter how sweet the sound
of their label is to our ears. This is not to say that such
comrades are acting in bad faith. There is an almost
traditional lack of clarity on certain problems within
the anarchist movement, which carries many to jump
to the (ideological) defence of tendencies which they
know only through historical eulogy and have never
put into practice in the reality in which they are living.
When the reality of the moment is that of re-
bellion at mass level, this ignorance and adhesion to
to old models becomes particularly dangerous, as it
can lead to trying to put a brake on the real move-
ment, and to a condemnation of comrades who
are working in the practical field of clarification.
Clarity on the problem of armed intervention in
the class struggle is therefore of primary importance.
First, what exactly do we mean by the term ‘armed
struggle’? Secondly, when is this form of intervention
justifiable? Thirdly, what organisational form should
this intervention take?
These are all questions which the anarchist move-
ment in Italy has been forced to face in recent years,
some groups more willingly than others. The theo-
retical articles that accompany the following chronol-
ogy are therefore also a fruit of the present historical
situation, and represent an attempt to go ahead to-
wards what we feel is a direction where anarchists can
be present in the struggle today.
Clearly what we have been able to portray in the
following selection of data is limited and at times dis-
ordered. But one of the prime elements of rebellion
is disorder. So let us begin to be wary of the order
within our ranks, and look to the disorder around us.
In 1960 in Italy the favourable economic period
comes to an end, and clashes begin in the streets. The
government, presided over by the Christian Demo-
crat Tambroni, tries to repress these clashes, but is de-
feated. Many demonstrators are killed by police in
Genoa, Rome, Modena, Reggio Emilia, and Catania.
In 1963 the Socialists enter the government. Re-
pression resumes. The trades unions begin to ne-
gotiate with the bosses. They gradually cease to
represent the workers. In the Hot Autumn of 1 969
the workers in the factories begin to organise au-
tonomously, in the form of wildcat strikes, factory
occupations, etc., and this situation has lasted, with
varying periods of flux and reflux, to the present day.
A number of Marxist-Leninist organisations are born,
for example Servire il Popolo. The anarchist move-
ment tries to re-organise through the FAI (Italian An-
1968 sees a general relaunching of political or-
ganisations following the struggles of May in France.
In Italy it is the anarchists that show the greatest de-
velopment, but the movement is full of contradic-
tions and disillusions most of those who approach
In 1969 Lotta Continua is born, and immedi-
ately after, Potere Operaio. It is the year of the piazza
Fontana massacres. The movement finds unity in the
defence of the anarchist comrades who were framed
In 1970 there is a revolt of the population of
Reggio Calabria, but the fascists succeed in taking
over the struggle due to the inefficiency of the com-
rades' political organisations. 1969 sees the beginning
of the revolts in the prisons, which continue until
1972. They re-emerge in 1973 and give life to the
movement of imprisoned militants.
The first organisations to become a point of ref-
erence for clandestine struggle are born. Around 1970
the Gruppi di Azione Proletaria (GAP) are formed
in Genoa. Potere Operaio supports them but Lotta
Continua condemns them. It is here that the degen-
eration of the latter begins, ending up in a squalid
gauchisme, to disappear completely as a movement
shortly afterwards leaving only a tiny group around
their daily paper.
During the same period Colletdvo Metropoli-
tano developed alongside the original Brigate Rosse
(Red Brigades, of a Stalinist matrix, tinted with dif-
ferent shades of Leninism): NAP ( Nuclei Armati Pro-
letari) or Armed Proletarian Cells; Prima Linea or
Front Line; Azione Rivoluzionaria or Revolutionary
Action; Nuclei Conibattenti Comunisti or Communist
Combattent Cells, etc. These groups have in turn in-
fluenced the internal structure of the Red Brigades
which, as far as one can understand from their latest
strategic document, would now seem to be that of
Leninist democratic centralism, i.e. groups that work
separately, but in contact in the strategic sense. Each
group elaborates its own analyses and plans of action,
then submits them to the strategic command who
study them and return them with relative observa-
tions. Individual groups can diverge from the strate-
gic command and develop analyses and actions that
might not have their approval. It is conceivable that
the intensification of repression will force the Red
Brigades to reconsider this structure and decide in
favour of the closed model of the Stalinist type (sup-
ported by the old guard), or the more open model
based on territorial evaluations.
It is the latter model that is now being applied by
other groups, with varying levels of conviction and
success. This breaking away from the rigid model of
the Red Brigades can be seen in the actions of the
NAP (and in their documents on theory and organ-
isations), and in more recent analyses produced by
the combatant organisation Prima Linea. Here the
Leninism is more diluted and the autonomy of in-
dividual groups (and therefore security on a military
level) appears to be greater.
The combatant organisation Azione Rivoluzion-
aria has attempted to develop theory and organisation
in a libertarian direction, and has often made explicit
references to anarchism.
Alongside this organisation, which is working in
Italian territory in a more or less efficient and coordi-
nated way, there exists an infinity of small groups and
individual militants who, without referring to any
specific organisation and often using made up names,
have developed a phenomenon of constant guerrilla
activity, constituting a very interesting point of refer-
ence for the development of the armed confrontation
The chronology that follows has been translated
from the bimonthly review Anarchismo, and covers
the period from March 1976 to November 1978.
Our Role i n the Present Conflict
We see the present historical situation as one that
is characterised by a state of increasing illegality in
which vast strata of society find themselves. Millions
of unemployed young people and those on the mar-
gins of society are having to use what ever means
are available in order to survive: thousands of women
are obliged to have back street abortions; workers
are practicing individual forms of sabotage, absentee-
ism and production boycotts; there are those in the
system's concentration camps (special prisons, psy-
chiatric hospitals etc.) who are rebelling; proletarian
squatters have not paid rent for years; ethnic com-
munities are reaffirming their identities; ‘hooligans’
our role in the present conflict
are crowding metropolitan ghettos; and many others.
The very fact that all these exploited are imposing
their presence as living contradictions in the midst
of capitalism's process of totalitarian transformation,
constitutes an inadmissible form of illegality for the
State. The State's response is to eliminate this in any
way possible, using a whole arsenal of brutal repres-
sive instruments in the attempt.
We see our task as that of attempting to trans-
form this mass illegalitarianism into a situation of
generalised rebellion that the State would no longer
be able to absorb into the dialectic claiming better
conditions/reform/control. There is only one way to
do this: to demonstrate with actions that each one of
us has an enemy that is identifiable in precise struc-
tures and personages, and that this enemy is not in-
vulnerable. We must demonstrate through action that
individual revolt can and must transform itself into
collective insurrection, the only one capable of really
freeing us from oppression. It now seems clear to us
that this means going beyond the limiting logic of
defense against State violence. It is instinctive for any-
one who is subjected to a system of exploitation that
tries to bend them to its will to defend themselves,
and in fact everyone is trying to do so in one way or
another. There are those who make make themselves
the knowing collaborators of power, or who delegate
this defense to others more capable.
We, who consider ourselves conscious revolu-
tionaries, cannot limit ourselves to this. We must and
will attack the State. Moreover, we are not attacking
it to take possession of it in turn, but to destroy it in
all its forms and realisations.
The creative essence of anarchism is present in
this work of destruction: in striking and eliminating
its hierarchical mechanisms right away, we are at the
same time creating the premise for the libertarian
management of society. We are not proposing a pre-
conceived model of society, the justice of which we
want to convince others, but want to put each person
in the condition of managing his or her own actions
directly, free the impositions of power and its servants.
We maintain that some instruments of struggle
have been acquired not only and not so much by
certain sectors of the revolutionary movement, but
by the whole proletarian movement, which cannot in
any way be reduced to one or more organisation or
set of initials. We think that the instruments we have
at our disposition should be addressed to this situa-
tion of struggle.
At this point attention should be paid not to ex-
change the instrument with the aim to be attained.
We must not let armed and illegal practice in struggle
become an end in itself and valid as such, therefore
unchangeable, infallible, self-sufficient and omnipo-
tent. ...The practice of violent attack against the State
ourroleinthe present conflict
that we are interested in developing is identifiable not
only and not so much with the shooting in the legs of
notorious Christian Democrats, but must permeate
every aspect of our struggle, every field of interven-
tion. For our attack to be effective we must be able to
identify the structures and representatives of power in
every city, factory, school, quarter, barracks, institution,
right to the relationships that exist among ourselves,
and strike them with all the range of instruments and
arms that our fantasy suggests.
This should prevent us from falling into Leninist-
type mystification where, directing the attack towards
a mythical heart of the State, they are actually prepar-
ing for the conquest of this heart in order to take it
over, leaving all the old capillaries intact and spread
throughout the whole country. Our task is also to
deny the absurd equation (so convenient to the State)
armed struggle equals clandestinity, which would lead
us in to accepting the role of professionals of armed
struggle and the reduction of our activity and our
very lives to the purely military aspect of struggle.
As anarchists our efforts should, on the contrary,
demonstrate that it is possible to go beyond these di-
visions into roles, against the formation of an elite of
experts, and the false alternative (not by chance one
that is desired and encouraged by the State) between
creative people and pistoleros.
Diffused Urban Guerrilla
23 Milan: A Mass in Defence of Life is celebrated in
the Duomo cathedral, attended by representatives of
all the strata who are against abortion and the spread-
ing of communism, from Nazi-fascists to the silent
majority. The police attack a group of comrades try-
ing to reach the cathedral. During the clash, eight
luxury cars and the office of an Iranian airline com-
pany are set fire to.
12 Naples: The trial of the NAP members who re-
belled in prison on the 3rd is due to take place. Hun-
dreds of proletarians go to show their solidarity with
the rebels. Violent clashes with the police develop.
Three arrests are made.
13 Rome: While Lotta Continua and Avanguardia
Operaia comrades are distributing leaflets outside a
school concerning the wounding of a LC comrade
by an MSI member, they are shot at by plain-clothes
police. One comrade is wounded, nine are arrested.
13 Rozzano: At the Knipping engineering factory,
noted for its antiworker reprisals and for enforcing
a 60/70-hour week, about sixty workers break in
through the gates, destroy adding machines, typewrit-
ers, windowpanes and machinery.The police arrive in
force and thirteen workers are held.
diffused urban guerrilla
14 Rome: About twenty comrades come out in protest
against the regime in Spain, which recently shot down
seven proletarians in the street. They throw molotovs
against the Spanish Embassy. Three policemen shoot
indiscriminately into the group of young people run-
ning away, killing one of them, Luigi De Angelis.
17 Turin: Production is blocked all over Italy follow-
ing sabotage at the FIAT factory in Turin. In Pomi-
gliano the workers of Alfa Romeo and Aeritalia block
the motorway. In Pozzuoli the workers of the Sofer,
Olivetti and Icon paralyse the area. Similar events take
place in Milan where factories are deserted, roads
blocked, town halls besieged.There are actions also in
Pordenone, Genoa, Bologna, Macerata, Bergamo, and
Ivrea.The unions announce the preparation of a con-
trolled strike in an attempt to recuperate the spon-
taneous rebellion. Everything now depends on the
critical capacity of the workers. Those who insulted
the union leaders, deriding their agreements with the
entrepreneurs, and are refusing to sacrifice themselves
“for the good of the nation,” must discover that they
cannot obtain much within the framework of the ex-
isting society, but that they can take all, transforming
the bases themselves. The bosses can't pay more, but
they can disappear.
18 Padova: Police brutally attack students in the Uni-
versity refectory where they were staging a sit-in.
They break in without warning, shooting tear gas.
Later in the day police shoot into a crowd outside
the university building, wounding five people.
25 General Strike. Turin, Pavia, Varese, Novara Ge-
noa, Padova, Florence, Naples, and Potenza — clashes
in front of the Town Halls. Road and rail blocks in
Trento, Massa, Bari, and Treviso.
26 Milan: Radical critique turns into practice. A pop
concert put on by Socialists in the Paladino find out
that warnings that such events would not be tolerated
were serious. Hundreds of comrades, conscious that
capitalism isn’t only in the factories, governments and
police stations, but is in all the situations of our daily
lives, the whole of our social existence, wreck the
auditorium and break up the concert.
30 Naples: Unemployed workers, tired of demonstra-
tions and broken promises, decide to make themselves
heard. They attack the labour exchange and the central
railway station, where they damage first class carriages.
They build barricades in the city centre, take over buses
and cars, and resist police onslaughts for over four hours.
Offices and shops are devastated. 29 arrests are made.
/ Rome: A march organised by Autonomia Operaia is
attacked by the police. Comrades defend themselves
with stones and molotovs. Many are wounded. Twen-
ty four arrests.
27 Treviso: Violent clashes break out between coun-
ter-demonstrators and police at an MSI meeting. Six
diffused urban guerrilla
comrades are arrested.
3 l Florence: 1 1 comrades are arrested during clash-
es with the police at a meeting held by MSI leader
28 Rome: Violent clashes when a huge crowd breaks
away from the festival organised by Proletari-
ate Giovanile (proletarian youth) in Parco Lambro.
Thousands of autonomists refuse to be controlled by
the politicos who wanted to impose their suprema-
cy on participants at the festival, and violent clashes
develop with the police. Those who are used to the
idea of revolution as a point of general discussion, the
well-behaved revolution, cannot understand that the
proletarian revolution is disordered, wild, desecrating.
15 Milan: Judges condone the sacking of four workers
for their political ideas at their appeal trial. The cara-
binieri reply to the public’s manifestation of anger by
attacking them, wounding many.
29 Ravenna: A festival organised by Federazione
Giovanile Comunista Italiana is broken up. Many
comrades, irritated by high prices, the squalid spec-
tacle, the barbed wire, and the searches by CP activists,
begin to protest nearby. Police fire into them, killing a
comrade. Groups of comrades raise barricades, uproot
road signs, plunder shops, and attack the town hall
and the police headquarters.
13 Naples: A group of unemployed workers is attacked
by police, who wound 30 and make numerous arrests.
8 A rese: Wildcat strike at Alfa Romeo factory against
the government’s proposed tax increases and rise in
cost of petrol. FIAT-OM workers block traffic in the
main street. Other spontaneous actions take place in
all the major towns and cities. The trade union bu-
reaucrats are obliged to call a general strike.
30 Turin: 23 comrades are arrested following an attack
on Right wing catholic organisation Comunione e
7 Milan: The city has been in a state of siege since the
early hours of the morning, with thousands of police
and carabinieri, as comrades plan to sabotage the first
night of the Scala. Clashes go on for hours all over
the centre of the city. Shops are devastated, buses and
cars set fire to and barricades erected. 33 arrests. Two
comrades are seriously wounded.
20 Cagliari: Over a thousand people demonstrate in
protest at the killing of Wilson Spiga, aged 17. The
boy had gone through red traffic lights and was shot
by a plain-clothes policeman.
diffused urban guerrilla
/ 4 Rome: The bookshop Maraldi is set fire to during
a demonstration in protest against the fascist assembly
in the city. Molotovs are also thrown against a Chris-
tian Democrat premises.
30 Naples: Police provoke comrades leaving a concert.
Thirty seven people are attacked, beaten up and ar-
rested for no reason other than that they are left-wing
2 Rome: A protest march against the killing of com-
rade Bellachioma by a fascist is attacked by machine
gun fire. The first to fire were two plain-clothes po-
licemen; others follow their example, wounding two
2 Turin: The fascist bookshop Fogola and a meeting
place for fascists and heroin pushers, are set on fire.
3 Pisa: Shop belonging to a notorious fascist is
wrecked. Police intervene, making one arrest.
16 all over Italy: Universities are occupied. The oc-
cupations, which are related to the Malfatti reform,
evolve into a general critique of all forms of alien-
ation. They become the refusal of authority, bureau-
crats, parties and trade unions.
18 Rome: Trade union leader (CGIL) Lama tries to
hold a meeting in the occupied University. He and
his gorillas are chased away by thousands of students
who destroy the platform he is standing on. The CP
calls for police intervention against students who
wreck the University before leaving it in the hands of
the forces of order.
4 Rome: Carabinieri in the corridors of the High Court
are attacked by the public following the sentencing of
Fabrizio Panzieri to nine years’ imprisonment for the
events that led to the death of the fascist Mantakas.
Many comrades are wounded by batons and tear gas.
5 Rome: Twenty thousand gather in protest against
Panzieri’s sentence. After a moment of confusion they
defend themselves, keeping ahead of the police for
hours. Cars and buses are used as barricades. Seven
comrades are arrested.
8 Palermo: Police attack a group of comrades who de-
cided to reduce the ticket prices at a concert. Heavy
clashes follow during which shots are fired into the
crowd by police.
1 1 Bologna: Thousands of comrades come out into the
streets following the killing of Lotta Continua com-
rade, Franco Lo Russo, at the university. A Christian
Democrat bookshop is set on fire, shops are plundered,
the Town Hall is attacked and the railway station is oc-
cupied. The Communist Party mayor calls in the army.
12 Rome, Bologna, Turin, Padova, Lecce, Messina, etc.:
Armed comrades clash with police and attack party
buildings and shops. The rage of thousands spreads
through the streets, ignited by the assassination of
diffused urban guerrilla
Franco Lo Russo and Panzieri’s prison sentence,
growing emargination and the squalid games of pow-
er. Armouries are plundered and pistols and guns dis-
tributed among demonstrators in Rome and Bologna.
Fascist lairs, cars, buses, shops, restaurants, and offices
go up in flames.
1 8 Milan: Armed comrades break away from a march
and enter the headquarters of the Marelli company.
They take the wallets containing identity cards etc.
from those present and set fire to the building. Ten
minutes later more offices are attacked. At midday a
commando take away pistols and ammunition from an
armoury. At 1 pm the office of a firm noted for its ex-
ploitation of young people is attacked with molotovs.
/ Venice: Violent clashes between police and demon-
strators trying to get into the Melibran theatre with
21 Rome: Battle at the University between hundreds
of comrades and police divisions. The autonomists
respond with arms. One policeman is killed, another
14 Milan: In a clash between autonomists and police
during a demonstration, a carabinieri sergeant is shot
in the forehead and dies a few days later.
1 9 Mestre: A group frees two feminists arrested by the
police after smashing the window of a cinema to tear
down a poster advertising a strip-tease show.
19 Genoa, Rome, etc.: Despite the fact that the govern-
ment has gone so far as to mobilise not only thou-
sands of police, special squadrons and carabinieri, but
has also armed park attendants and forestry guards,
demonstrations continue to take place in many cities.
In Rome thousands of students participate in an as-
sembly at the University, which is surrounded by the
army. In Milan two bombs go off in an underground
terminus, preventing trains from operating.The action
s claimed by Prima Linea who write: the sabotage in
the underground on this working day and therefore day of
profit for the bosses, is linked to other forms of mass illegality.
In Padova the University is crowded with comrades
who give battle to the forces of order. Fifteen cars
are burned, another dozen are overturned and used as
barricades, and tanks are attacked with molotovs. In
Genoa hundreds of young people occupy the streets
and side streets of the city centre, have a pitched battle
with the police, then retire into their bases.
10 Turin: While discussions with the unions con-
tinue, workers at the FIAT-Mirafiori get tired of
waiting and damage an office building, hold a dem-
onstration and walk out in short, disordered strikes.
30 Syracuse: Twenty five workers are charged with
having blocked the road and the railway station in
February following the poisoning of eighteen men
diffused urban guerrilla
and women at the gates of the I SAB factory.
5 Rome: About a hundred shantytown dwellers come
out to demonstrate about their living conditions
in front of a municipal building where a session of
councillors is taking place. They are attacked by po-
lice and two demonstrators are arrested.
10 Melilli: A few dozen men, women, and children
occupy the Town Hall. They want to be transferred
to an area safely away from the poisonous discharge
from industrial establishments around Syracuse.
15 Rome: Following a denunciation by Communist
Party and Comunione e Liberazione members 400
police raid a students’ residence. The whole place is
turned over in true Gestapo fashion. Seven students
end up in prison.
Proletarians block the access to their area in protest
against police raids where, under pretext of looking
for a machine gun police had manhandled women
and children. This kind of experience is not new to
the area. Needless to say, no machine gun was found.
2 / Milan: Two thousand paper mill workers threat-
ened with redundancy erect roadblocks on the route
to the airport. They also try to invade the runways
but are prevented by police.
23 Cagliari: The Communist mayor and two Social-
ist Party officials are locked inside the town hall by
one hundred fifty miners and sympathisers who have
not received social security payments for the past
fifty months, and because they have been fighting in
vain for the past year to have vital repairs done to the
mine where they work.
24 Ravenna: Workers of the Maraldi group who have
not been paid for months block the port with a steel
hull. In Varese more than three hundred workers of
the Siai Marchetti block the railway station. At the
same time another four hundred workers block the
Sempione road in two places.
29 Naples: One hundred forty dockers who have
been laid off for the past two months put lorries in
front of the gates thereby blocking port activity.
In Reggio Calabria four hundred fifty workers of the
Andreae Knitwear company who have been laid off
for months occupy the railway station for a number
7 Naples: Demonstrations of ESSO workers climb on
to the roof of a depot and threaten to set fire to the
tank. In Milan about a hundred families organised in
a squatters’ committee have been occupying the first
nine floors of the housing office for the past five days.
23 Naples: About 80 workers at the OMSA stocking
factory occupy the railway lines for hours at a point
where express trains have to pass. The protest is about
the proposed closure of the factory.
29 Bolzano: The inhabitants of S. Giacomo area oc-
diffused urban guerrilla
cupy one of the main streets of the city and hold it for
four hours. The reason is that the street is dangerous
for children, and recently four have been injured. In
Florence, students, employed and unemployed work-
ers squat three disused hotels. The action is directed
against high rents and towards “having a house one
can live in with dignity.”
30 Milan: During the night, news of the assassination
ofWalter Rossi reaches Milan. Huge demonstrations
take place throughout the night, and a number of cars
in the city are damaged.
i Rome: Protests about the assassination of Rossi. A
large spontaneous demonstration assembles. Three
fascist lairs are burned. Cars and buses are used to
block roads. Police repeatedly storm demonstrators
with tear gas. In Bologna incidents break out during
a march. A bar is burned and many cars are destroyed.
A car showroom is set fire to during the night. In
Florence the hotel occupation widens its perspec-
tive with the protest against the Rossi assassination.
Some shops are damaged. In Catanzaro there are
clashes between comrades and fascists, and against the
police. In Brescia there are demonstrations with at-
tacks on various symbols of power. A Luisa Spagnola
shop is burned. In Padova two bars are burned and
a bank is attacked. In Varese demonstration with mo-
lotovs against chosen targets. In Verona clashes with
the police, molotovs against shops. In Milan a large
demonstration, molotovs against a church and a cafe
frequented by fascists.
3 Rome: Violent clashes with police etc. During the
funeral of Walter Rossi, comrades rebel against the
atmosphere of official mourning in the presence of
representatives of the city authorities, and at a point
where one of the fascist lairs is situated, the funeral be-
comes a demonstration. There are immediate clashes
with the carabinieri. A fascist meeting place is set fire
to, as is an MSI party premises, a police car and a lorry.
2 Milan : Protest against rise in bus fares. A bus is taken
over by comrades and covered in slogans. It is then
used to lead the demo against fares.
9 Milan: Anarchist comrades occupy an underground
railway station, locking the gates and letting passen-
gers in free. Slogans are written on the walls and leaf-
lets distributed against price increases and demanding
a free service.
1 4 Rome: During an anti-fascist demonstration a large
part of the march breaks away and attacks some of
the key points of repression with molotovs. Shops are
plundered and the Christian Democrat premises at-
tacked. Some comrades picked up by the police are
freed by others. Police find one hundred eighty seven
abandoned molotov cocktails.
17 Milan: Police attack a demonstration against fares
increases. The result: some wounded, hundreds of
diffused urban guerrilla
millions of lire damage to ATM (transport company)
property cars, ticket machines, control lines, signals.
18 Rome: A demonstration heads for the Bonn Em-
bassy after the Stammheim and Mogadishu massacres.
Police block the road, so demonstrators go to the
American Embassy instead. Police storm the march
and two comrades are wounded.
20 Rome: Protests continue against Stammheim and
Mogadishu. A proposed demonstration to the Ger-
man consulate is averted by all the forces of power in
the city. Violent clashes with police develop. Twen-
ty comrades are arrested and four policemen are
21 Milan: Barricades are erected in the city against
27 Palermo: Comrades block roads in the city centre.
In Oristano the whole village ofSamugneo is blocked
by its 4,000 inhabitants because it lacks drains, water
supply, roads, etc.
29 Milan: ATM trams and kiosks attacked in vari-
ous underground stations in the continuing struggle
against fares increases.
7 Vercelli: The workers ofMontefibre occupy and hold
the railway station for three hours in protest against
redundancies and the closing of numerous companies
in the area.
1 1 Bologna: German Christian Democrat Gunter
Muller and English Labour minister Thomas Urwin
come to present the Flag of Honour of the Coun-
cil of Europe to Andreotti in recognition of the de-
velopment of European relations. Comrades occupy
the Faculty of Architecture — they want to ask Muller
about the killings at Stammheim; they want two
comrades (arrested in Bologna in March) to be freed.
Patrols of comrades cover the city. Clashes break out
/ / Milan: Clashes between comrades and police in
the Sempione area during a protest march against the
molotoving of a comrade’s house the night before.
Police fire pistol shots and teargas. Comrades retaliate
with molotovs, spanners, stones, catapults and any-
thing else they can find.
12 Rome: In spite of the ban on demonstrations com-
rades begin to gather for the march in protest against
the closing of the autonomous groups’ premises.
More than four hours’ battle with the police ensue.
Twenty arrests are made. In Milan clashes break out
for the same reason and a large group break into the
police office at one of the railway stations.
12 Lecce: Clashes between comrades and police. One
comrade is seriously injured in the legs.
15 National Strike: In Padova, Turin, Trento, Bologna,
Bari, clashes between police helped by CGIL gorillas,
and comrades who criticise the conservative and re-
pressive role of the unions in every way. The new and
diffused urban guerrilla
old police attack the comrades, who respond with
stones and molotovs.
16 Genoa: Inhabitants of the inland region hit by
flooding the previous year are enraged by the govern-
ment’s failure to provide aid. They occupy and block
the Genoa/ Alessandria motorway.
18 Milan: The workers of Unidal block a main bou-
levard in protest against the company’s plan to make
5,000 workers redundant.
29 Bari: Demonstrations and clashes with police in
protest against the killing of young comrade Petrone
the previous day. The Cisnal premises are assailed and
destroyed. A TV cameramen films police firing wildly
and one down on his knees taking careful aim. Other
incidents in Bologna, Catania, L’Aquila, and Milan.
8 Cagliari: Demonstration about the crisis situation.
Clashes with police. Molotovs/tear gas.
8 Algliero: Spontaneous demonstration in protest
against the police killing a 16 year old boy caught
stealing a pair of shoes. Clashes with police. Many
shop windows are smashed.
12 Rome: In spite of a ban, a demonstration takes place
to commemorate the Piazza Fontana massacre (bomb
placed by fascists and the Italian secret services in the
Banca dell’Agricoltura in Milan in 1969 killing 27 peo-
ple, which was used to strike the anarchist movement).
Molotovs against FIAT dealers, and the SIP. Many cars
are burned, windows and traffic lights smashed.
1 6 Genoa: During clashes in the city centre between
police and demonstrators, premises of Catholic As-
sociation are attacked.
17 Milan: During an anti-fascist demonstration many
comrades manage to enter the headquarters of the
Italian Monarchist Association, and cause damage of
more than 50 million lire.
1 978 January
3,000 workers left without wages or holiday pay by a
contracting firm organise a series of road blocks and
then go to the company building where they cause
damage of over 200 million lire.
30 Rome: Police bar a protest demonstration against
the exile of comrades to island prisons. All the same,
comrades come out into the streets and the morning is
spent fighting off the police. Seventy nine people are
arrested and later released. Seven policemen wounded.
10 Rome: Violent clashes develop when police try to
break up a demonstration against plans to exile com-
rades. 1 4 arrests are made.
6 Cagliari: Hard clashes at the RAI (television com-
pany) between police and demonstrators protesting
against the arrest of six comrades who lived in the
area. They are accused of belonging to an armed or-
diffused urban guerrilla
9 Cagliari: During the demonstration called by the trade
unions against redundancies at the Ruminaca company,
groups of demonstrators smash shop windows and the
RAI-TV van where the incidents were being filmed.
18 Turin: Groups of ‘self-reducing' passengers attack
25 AMT carriages and destroy ticket machines.
19 Tivoli: A CP meeting is disrupted by groups of
comrades protesting against the decision to exile rev-
25 Rome: During a demonstration for the Political
6 (struggle in the secondary schools against exami-
nations, where pupils demand the automatic passage
to high school, which normally requires a minimum
60% pass), a Christian Democrat and MSI premises
are attacked with molotovs. Thirty two comrades are
arrested. Many attacks on Christian Democrat prem-
ises and police stations take place during the night.
7 Naples: A demonstration of unemployed workers
paralyses the eastern part of the city. In the evening
sellers of contraband goods come out into the streets
with the slogan ‘if you want to stop smuggling, you’ll
have to give us jobs’.
2 1 Cagliari: Workers at the firm Selpa, in struggle for
the past four years to save their jobs, occupy the villa
belonging to two SIR directors for four hours.
22 Milan: D uring the funeral of Fausto and Lorenzo
(see “Victims of Repression”), anarchist comrades try
to attack the premises of trade union delegates and
fights break out with the confederal macebearers bar-
/ 8 Cosenza: At the end of a trade union meeting to
organise a general strike at provincial level, police
storm workers who try to break into the city build-
ings. Clashes spread out over the whole main square,
resulting in many people being wounded.
21 Bologna : Clashes between police and demonstra-
tors. Three comrades are arrested.
5 Rome: Clashes break out between between po-
lice and groups of comrades who were contesting
a Democrazia Nazionale meeting. A Comunione e
Liberazione bookshop is attacked with molotovs.
1 1 Rome: A group of homeless people blow up the
office of the city assessor, dedicating the action to the
/ 6 Capo Rizzuto Island: Anti-terrorist operation in-
. ades holiday camp La Comune searching for wanted
‘terrorists’. Clashes break out between hundreds of
young campers and police. Not a shadow of a terror-
ist to be found.
20 Florence: Demonstration of 10,000 hospital work-
diffused urban guerrilla
ers from all over the Tuscany region, and this self-
managed movement spreads to all other Italian cities.
The army is called in in some cities.
23 Rome: Police break into a hospital and break up
a nurses’ meeting. Clashes break out with injuries on
both sides, and six arrests are made.
30 Naples: Clashes between police and unemployed
workers from the firm Hidropress which had put up
road blocks in the city.
5 Naples: Poggioreale prison: 9 prisoners, all belong-
ing to the NAP, attempt to escape. Discovered after
taking a warder hostage, they barricade themselves
in the ‘transit’ pavilion. They only come out after a
communique has been read on the radio and televi-
sion, and they are promised transfers to other prisons.
6 Turin: Bars are found to be sawn through in the
new prison and an escape bid by three Red Brigades
members and two other prisoners is foiled.
12 Catania: Incidents in the juvenile prison. Wild
firing of machine guns against young prison-
ers protesting about conditions and food, wounds
a woman carrying child in the street outside.
14 Turin: In the new prison prisoners refuse to return
to their cells after the exercise period. Guards open
fire to intimidate them. Prisoners in Poggioreale also
protest in solidarity and demand the immediate ap-
plication of prison reforms.
16 Nuoro: Rebellion in the prison where prisoners are
demanding the suspension of a punishment meted
out to one of their comrades. Furniture and fittings
are set fire to. The prison is devastated. The revolt is
quelled after hours of fighting which results in 20
prisoners being wounded.
18 Milan, Rimini, Augusta, Salerno, Rome: Prisoners
demonstrate against the prison regime. In Perugia pris-
oners forcibly refuse to be transferred to other prisons.
20 Lecce: Mass escape from the prison where eleven
prisoners immobilise guards and oblige them to open
the prison gates. Four are captured a tew hours later.
The others remain in liberty despite massive police
operations throughout the area.
26 Bologna: Escape attempt by three comrades is
foiled — three hacksaws are confiscated.
30 S. Vittore: A comrade is put in solitary confinement
and other inmates of his wing call for his release. This
is refused and a rooftop protest follows, ending only
when he is returned to his cell.
3 1 Turin: All the prisoners go on to the roof, demanding
that the new prison reforms be put into effect. After
fifty hours the police intervene in force. The prisoners
defend themselves with all possible means, and outside
the prison groups of sympathisers clash with police.
15 Reggio Calabria: Police are called in with dogs to
quell a revolt in the prison. One prisoner, a NAP
comrade, is savaged by one of the dogs.
30 Campobasso: After their escape attempt is discov-
ered, four prisoners barricade themselves and two
warders in a cell. They only come out twenty four
hours later after a press conference where they reveal
the inhuman conditions in the prison.
6 Catania: Revolt in the prison, resulting in the de-
struction of a third of it. After police regain control
two prisoners are found dead with knife wounds, and
two others are wounded.
8 Favignana: A judge is taken hostage by a prisoner
who explains that his action is against ‘brutal State
repression aimed at the physical elimination of com-
batants inside the prison’.
25 Milan, S. Vittore: A rooftop demonstration by 250
prisoners is attacked by police at dawn. A whole wing
10 Palermo: Ucciardone prison: a revolt breaks out
and goes on for twenty two hours. The prisoners
are demanding the Governor’s dismissal. Police use
oxyacetylene cutting gear to break through barriers.
Violent close combat clashes follow, resulting in many
wounded on both sides.
13 Florence: Fifteen prisoners at the Murate prison
take one officer and six warders hostage. They only
give in after they been granted transfers to prisons of
/ Piacenza: Revolt in the prison. Police intervene im-
mediately with machine guns. One prisoner is killed
before the revolt is suppressed.
2 Treviso: Thirteen prisoners take machine guns from
guards and escape.
3 Venice: Prisoners in a wing of the S. Maggiore prison
clash with guards and police, resulting in the destruc-
tion of the whole wing.
5 Fossombrone: Six prisoners try to escape, four suc-
ceed, but the other two are caught at the gate. Both
are brutally beaten up by guards. One suffers a cere-
bral haemorrhage and dies.
22 Possuoli: Maria Pia Vianali and Franca Salerno, ac-
cused ofbeing members of the NAP are sprung from
prison. The NAP members on trial in Naples claim
the organisation’s responsibility in the courtroom.
2 1 Saluzzo: An escape attempt by three comrades is
spotted by guards who open fire, wounding them.
Two are recaptured immediately, the other takes ref-
uge in a house which is then surrounded by police.
To guarantee his safety, others in the prison take a
warder and three fascist prisoners hostage. They are
only released when all involved are granted transfers.
23 Cuneo: Six prisoners escape over rooftops.
/ 1 Perugia: After a failed escape attempt, fourteen pris-
oners barricade themselves in a cell along with four
warders. They come out after being granted transfers
to other prisons.
17 Catania: Fifteen prisoners hold a rooftop protest
for an hour and a half. In Brescia two hundred pris-
oners stage a demonstration lasting sixteen hours.
18 Viterbo: Four hours of revolt. Prisoners barricade
themselves in the prison offices, smash windows, doors
and desks. Some of the comrades manage to knock
down a wall and get reinforcements from another wing.
7 Milan: One hundred sixty prisoners at S. Vittore re-
fuse to return to their cells after the exercise period.
They make their way to the roof and four companies
of riot police are brought in. For two hours they fire
into the air and throw tear gas canisters.
8 Ravenna: Five prisoners escape. Pianosa (island pris-
on) 3 prisoners escape. Two are caught by coastguards,
the other escapes in an inflatable canoe.
2 Forli: Nine prisoners celebrate the day of the Re-
public by escaping from prison.
4 Island of Pianosa: Five prisoners escape from the is-
land prison in a rubber dinghy.
9 Spoleto: A revolt breaks out in the prison: some Red
Brigades and NAP comrades, along with a few other
prisoners, take 12 warders hostage during the exer-
5: Five conscientious objectors in a military prison
where they are doing their ‘national service’ begin a
hunger strike to denounce the climate of repression
put into effect by the military hierarchy over the past
27 Turin: A revolt holds out for three hours in the
juvenile prison Ferranti Aporti.
13 Rome: Families and friends of prisoners in the
super-prisons, Favignana, Cuneo, Trani, Asinara and
Fossombrone present a formal complaint to the Min-
ister of Justice and to the prison directors and ward-
ers, about the inhuman treatment meted out in these
15 Turin: A group of prisoners in Le Nuove prison re-
fuse to return to their cells at the end of the exercise
period. The protest is about the non-functioning of
the sewage system in the isolation cells where about
one hundred twenty prisoners are living amid shit.
12 Turin: For the past three days 300 prisoners in the
Nuove prison have been on hunger strike in protest
against the super-prisons, demanding the demilitarisa-
tion of the prison guards, and more humane sentences.
16 Nuoro: Two prisoners escape from the penal colo-
20 Florence: A group of five people manage to en-
ter the Murate prison with the intention of freeing
comrades accused of belonging to the Unita Com-
battente Comuniste. The action fails as a passer by
recognises the van parked outside the prison as being
one that had been stolen the previous day. Crossfire
follows on the arrival of a police flying squad, and
one PS officer is killed, another injured.
5 Parma: Three prisoners attempt to escape. When
they are discovered, they hold the prison director and
some screws hostage, and only free them after they
have been granted transfers to other prisons.
27 Arezzo: Prisoners in the local prison begin a hunger
strike in solidarity with those doing the same in Padova.
26 Milan: Five prisoners escape from the juvenile
prison Beccaria after taking two guards hostage.
Salerno: Four prisoners take eight guards hostage in an
attempt to regain their freedom. In the end they have
to content themselves with transfers to other prisons.
1 9 Asmara: Revolt in the super-prison. Five prison-
ers destroy the visiting room and distribute leaflets
to prisoners. Prisoners on their exercise period are
attacked by guards, and heavy clashes follow. Many
prisoners are severely beaten up, and one anarchist,
Florst Fantazzini, who has on previous occasions
made miraculous recoveries from police bullets, was
taken to hospital in a semi-comatose state.
23 Pavia: Three prisoners slash their wrists and wound
themselves in various parts of their bodies in protest
against the judge’s refusal to let them have visits from
29 Milan: Three 18-year-old prisoners escape from
the juvenile prison, taking a warder with them until
they reach the outside gates. Two are arrested the fol-
9 Cuneo: Comrade Giuliano Isa destroys five inter-
phones in the visiting hall in the local super-prison. A
similar action is carried out by five comrades in the
concentration camp of Favignana.
12 Novara: The visiting room of the superprison is
damaged during the night.
15 Messina: The prisoners in the female maximum-
security wing destroy the interphones in the visiting
room, and claim the action in a communique where
they put forward demands concerning internal and
20 Latina: The presumed NAP militant Silvano Inno-
centi escapes in a motorboat from the island of Ponza
where he was in forced residence.
23 Asinara: The prisoners in the Fornelli section break
down the walls dividing the cells during a revolt or-
ganised to demand the abolition of the super-prisons.
The wing is evacuated and the prisoners transferred
to other parts of the island.
24 Genoa: Protest in the Marassi prison, where pris-
oners refuse to go back into their cells after the ex-
ercise period. Carabinieri and PS divisions are called
in to intervene.
25 Nuoro: A prisoner escapes from the penal colony
10 Cagliari: A prisoner serving four years for robbery
escapes from the prison camp. 13: Six young prison-
ers who were not due to be released until 1981, es-
cape from borstal.
17 Favignana: Incidents inside the super-prison where
six prisoners rebelled against guards who were trying
to force them to re-enter their cells.
Prisons, Courts, and the Legal Hierarchy
28 Rome: Six pistol shots are fired at appeal Court
Counsellor Pietro Margariti.The action is claimed by
the nucleus Sergio Romeo.The NAP issue a bulletin:
The counsellor oj the Appeal Court, Pietro Margariti, is re-
sponsible for the ill-treatment, persecution and transfers that
comrade prisoners are subjected to. He is responsible for the
massacre of the proletarian prisoners in Rebibbia during the
revolt of August 1915, and transfers to the most disgusting
prisons in Italy, as well as beatings, provocations, etc. . .
22 Milan: A Red Brigades/NAP cell enter the of-
fices of the regional prison inspectorate and take away
various papers. A leaflet is left: ‘prisons are the final
link in the chain of anti-proletarian repression...’
Four pistol shots are fired at deputy Procurator of the
Republic, Paolino dell’Anno. The action is claimed
by the NAP.
8 Genoa: The Procurator General, Francesco Coco,
and his escort of two carabinieri are killed. The ac-
tion is claimed by the Red Brigades in a leaflet and in
a declaration by some of their members in the court
prisons, courts, and the legal hierarchy
/ Florence: The car belonging to the deputy Procura-
tor of the Republic and Public Prosecutor in the trial
against the NAP is burned.
28 Rome: A High Court judge’s car is burned. The
action is claimed by NAP.
13 Bergamo: Five bombs explode, destroying two pris-
on buildings under construction.
14 Avelliiw: Incendiary devices destroy car and van
used for transporting prisoners.
20 Augusta: Arson at prison warehouse causes millions
of lire damage.
30 Pisa: Alberto Mammoli, the prison doctor at the
time of the death of anarchist comrade Franco Seran-
tini who was, along with others, responsible for his
death, is seriously wounded with three pistol shots.
Action claimed by Azione Rivoluzionaria.
2 8 Turin: A Red Brigades cell kill lawyer Fulvio Croce,
president ofTurin Law Society.The action takes place
on the eve of the Red Brigades’ trial with the aim of
having it postponed.
4 Brescia: Prison doctor’s house set on fire with petrol
1 6 Ercolano: Two explosives go off against a villa used
as a training school for prison personnel.
7 9 Bologna: Deputy Procurator of the Republic’s car
19 Turin: An architect’s studio raided and documents
relative to the construction of the new prison Valette
are removed. The contents of the documents are to
be revealed by the comrades.
30 Spoleto: The Red Brigades explode a bomb against
the prison walls.
1 7 Florence: A series of explosions cause considerable
damage to the new prison under construction at Sol-
licciano. Action claimed by an armed nucleus ofAzi-
7 7 Leghorn: The engine of a crane and builders’ huts
on the site of the prison under construction in via
Padula are bombed. This is claimed by Azione Riv-
9 Como: Incendiary bottles thrown against the prison
gates, setting fire to them. Action claimed by Azione
75 L’Aquila: Court building set fire to. Widespread
prisons, courts, andthe legal hierarchy
damage. Action claimed by Unita di Lotta Armata per
19 Turin: The regional Inspectorate of Prison Sen-
tences is bombed.
Turin: Prima Linea claim the bombing carried out
with 400 sticks of explosive against the new prison
under construction. To trick the guards the comrades
arrive dressed as policemen, then immobilise them.
Sassari: Five explosives are placed in front of the
house of deputy procurator of the Republic, but the
fuse goes out due to a technical fault.
2 Palermo: Car of local High Court judge burned.
30 Spoleto: Eight charges ofTNT cause another half
billion lire damage to foundations of the new prison
7 Vibo Valentia: Pistol shots are fired against the home
of the prison director.
1 4 Rome: The judge involved in prison construction
and under whose direction the special prisons were
built, is brought to justice by the Red Brigades.
5 Turin: Bomb attack, claimed in telephone call by
Red Brigades, against home of lawyer Manni, presi-
dent of the Law Society. The attack takes place three
days before the commencement of the supertrial of
the “historic nucleus” of the Red Brigades.
27 Nuoro: Van used for transporting prisoners is set
fire to by group Barbagia Rossa.
Catania: Two hooded men wound the chief prison
warden in the legs.
/ 1 Turin: A Red Brigades cell ambush a prison guard
outside his home. The guard retaliates, wounding one
of the comrades, then is killed by the other members
of the cell.
19 Milan: Assistant-governor of San Vittore prison is
killed by the Walter Alesia column of the Red Brigades.
6 Novara: The prison doctor is wounded by 2 pistol
shots by a group Proletari Armati per il Comunismo.
24 Rome: Bomb against the offices of the Ministry of
24 Cagliari: The car belonging to a warder at Buon-
cammino prison is destroyed by fire.
3 Nuoro: Bombs against cars of two prison warders.
6 Udine: Proletari Armati per il Comunismo shoot
and kill the chief warder of the local prison.
/ 7 Tivoli: A bomb explodes against the door of the
juvenile prison Tommaseo.
prisons, courts, andthe legal hierarchy
I 4 Tropea: An explosive charge is placed in front of the
local prison, blowing up a warder’s car.
19 Bergamo: Pistol shots and machine gun fire from
a car strike a prison sentinel and a passing police car.
24 Bergamo: Shots fired during the night against a
24 Verona: Local prison warder lamed by Proletari Ar-
mati per il Comunismo.
10 Rome: Judge Girolamo Tartaglione, responsible for
the persecution of many comrades through his posi-
tion at the Ministry of Justice, is himself brought to
justice by a Red Brigades cell.
I I Naples: Alfredo Paolella, university lecturer and
collaborator in the plan for restructuring of prisons
as well as being director of the Centre for Crimino-
logical Observation at Poggioreale prison, is brought
to justice by Prima Linea.
3 Genoa: Red Brigades burn cars belonging to two
prison guards noted for beating up prisoners.
8 Patrica: A commando of Formazione Comuniste
Combattenti ambush the chief procurator of Frosin-
one, Calvosi and his police escort. One of the com-
rades Roberto Capone, is killed during the action.
13 Milan: The health inspector of San Vittore prison
is shot in the legs by Reparti Comunisti d’Attacco.
15 Florence: Prison doctor of the Murate escapes un-
hurt when his car explodes on turning the ignition
key. Action claimed by Red Brigades.
1 7 Turin: Squadre Armate Proletarie break into the of-
fice of the architect responsible for transformation of
La Marmora police station into a bunker for holding
Red Brigades members awaiting trial. They fire four
shots into his arms and legs.
28 Naples: Director of S. Maria CaputaVetere prison
shot in the shoulder.
15 Milan: A milk lorry is attacked and milk is given
28 Monte Cassino: Proletarian shopping inside the FIAT
Cassino. The canteen stores are plundered to the cry
of workers, help yourselves , while calculators and type-
writers are destroyed. The scene moves to the office
buildings, where the same thing happens. While union
officials and factory bosses are carrying out an on the
spot investigation, the stores are given a final clearout,
putting the cost of damage at over 15 million lire.
27 Turin: Red Brigades expropriate 60 million lire
from the Polytechnic.
3 1 Noale (Venice): Robbery carried out by the Red
Brigades in a branch of the Savings Bank,
14 Rome: A meat wholesaler is kidnapped by Unita
Combattente Comuniste who ask for large quanti-
ties of prime meat to be delivered to 71 butchers in
23 areas, to be sold at the political price of 1,500
lire (about 90 pence) per kilo. Unfortunately he was
found by police before the conditions were met.
15 Pegli: The NAP claim a robbery in a telephone call:
This morning we expropriated, in the name of the proletariat,
5 million lire from the Banca Popolare di Novara.
37 Milan: In Parco Lambra during the festival of Pro-
letariate Giovanile, comrades plunder a bar. The same
thing happens to two lorry loads of food. The young
proletariat are no longer willing to fatten up specula-
tors, no matter how they disguise themselves.
27 Ravenna: Requisition from a supermarket: fruit,
clothing and groceries.
15 Brescia: Four people rob the Credito Agrario bank
of 50 million lire. As they are leaving they declare that
they belong to the Red Brigades.
26 Milan: Expropriation in the elegant confectioners
Motta. Nearly all the goods displayed are taken away.
21 Milan: Expropriation in one of the most famous
bookshops in the city. Comrades empty the till, and
take away books to the value of half a million lire.
7 Milan: Three thousand comrades break into 5 lux-
ury cinemas in the city and force the managers to
reduce the tickets to 500 lire each.
30 Venice: The Red Brigades rob a bank in the city,
taking away 80 million lire.
3 Milan: About a hundred people loot a supermarket,
taking away goods to the value of several million lire.
22 Naples: Following a trade union open meeting,
many luxury shops are looted.
13 Catanzaro: Proletarian expropriation in a local
bank, yielding 40 million lire.
28 Rome: A bread van is hijacked by young armed
people who distribute the bread among passersby.
3 Genoa: Piero Costa, armaments entrepreneur kid-
napped by the Red Brigades 80 days before, is re-
leased on payment ot one and a half billion lire.
8 Bologna: Trial begins against 22 students and a 66
year old woman accused of stealing napkins, table-
cloths, cutlery, food, etc., from a restaurant frequented
by the local bourgeoisie and a common haunt for
Communist Party... business lunches.
25 Bologna: Expropriations in many shops during the
three days’ meeting on Repression.
15 Milan: Demonstration followed by proletarian ex-
propriation in a store in Corso Italia.
10 Prato: During an attempted expropriation three
comrades of Lotta Armata per il Comunismo end up
having to kill a notary, who was evidently more at-
tached to money than his life.
19 Milan: 12 furs are stolen from the cloakroom of a
private club. They are worth a total of 60 million lire.
A note is found in their place addressed to the “gra-
cious attention of the bourgeoisie,” and signed “Nu-
cleo Anarchici Proletari.”
17 Bologna: Comrades break into an opticians and an
electrodomestic appliances store and take away many
of the goods.
27 Bologna: Ronde Proletarie di Combattimento
empty the till in a shoe shop and then set fire to
it, leaving written on the walls: “Fire to those who
finance the MSI.”
20 Castiglione del Lago: A group of young people
gathered for the Umbria-jazz concerts, plunder a
19 Padova: The University refectory is set fire to fol-
lowing recent episodes ot sell-reduction in food prices.
There are approximately 1,800 lire to one pound sterling. 1
million lire is therefore approximately 550 pounds sterling,
1 billion lire, 550,000 pounds sterling.
Victims of Repression
1 4 Rome: Police make chase on a group of about twen-
ty comrades following a molotov attack on the Span-
ish Embassy in protest against the shooting of seven
people in the streets of Spain. At one point three po-
licemen open fire on a group of young people spotted
running in a part of the city far away from the Em-
bassy. They say they fired into the air with the aim of
intimidating them, but the body ot comrade Luigi De
Angelis, killed by a bullet in the calf, tells another story.
7 Monticelli: Six molotovs are thrown against the en-
trance to the Ministry of Justice following the confir-
mation ot the sentence of nine years meted out to an-
archist comrade Giovanni Marini for having defended
himselt against an attack by fascists, killing one ot them.
Police guards begin a wild chase, and at least 200 yards
from the Ministry a young comrade is shot in the neck.
victims of repression
The usual cry of legitimate defence is hurled by the
assassins, but no gun was found in the hand of Mario
Salvi, nor did it appear in any of the police photographs.
28 Milan: Gaetano Amoroso, Luigi Spera and Carlo
Palma, three members of the Antifascist Committee,
are knifed by a group of fascists. The three are taken
to hospital in serious condition, and Gaetano Amo-
roso dies three days later.
28 Sezze Romano: Following a MSI meeting, a fas-
cist gang led by the honourable Saccucci and SID
inspector Troccia, fire repeatedly all over the village.
A young CP member is killed and a Lotta Continua
militant injured. The police could have arrested Sac-
cucci at the time of the shooting, but he is allowed to
leave the country.
12 Cagliari: A fifteen-year-old boy is killed by police.
He was trying to steal a car and was slaughtered by a
volley of machine gun fire — which as always in the
case of proletarian victims, happened “by accident.’’
1 1 Bologna: After clashes at the University between
comrades and Comunione e Liberazione members
carabinieri open fire, killing Francesco Lo Russo,
Lotta continua militant. The reaction of thousands of
proletarians is immediate.
17 Turin: Student Bruno Cecchetti is killed by ma-
chine gun fire by a carabinieri squadron as he is
walking home.They say the shooting was an accident
when they could not substantiate their first claim
(that Cecchetti had threatened them with a pistol).
28 Agrigento: A 46-year-old man, Vincenzio Ponzio,
“in prison for insulting a public official” is found
hanged in his cell.
12 Rome: The Government bans the Radicals’ demon-
stration in the city and call in police. They shoot into
the crowd and kill a 19 year old girl, Giorgiana Masi.
8 Milan: A 27 year old worker, Orazio Gilardoni, falls
from the roof of one of the railway station buildings,
killing himself. Another ‘accident’ at work.
1 6 Reggio Emilia: Another death on the exploitation
front. A 68 year old worker, Aldo Tonelli, was clean-
ing an irrigation canal along with other workmates,
when he was buried under soil and died.
24 Milan: A 39-year-old woman from Calabria mar-
ried to an unemployed immigrant worker dies of
1 1 Cassino: Seven workers are injured following a gas
explosion at work.
15 Latina: A worker falls to his death from an un-
victims of repression
steady ladder at the Fulgor Cavi Cable Company.
He remains unattended for hours before his body is
found. One of the company managers tries to con-
ceal the fact that the ladder was faulty.
7 8 Alessandria: 53-year-old peasant Giuseppe Squarise
was fitting cement piping in a hole fifteen feet deep
when he was knocked down by falling soil and killed.
22 Milan: Prima Linea distribute a leaflet claiming
an arms expropriation carried out by three of their
members on the 19th, when one comrade, Romano
Tognini, “Valerio” was killed.
22 Milan: A 32-year-old father of three dies after nine
hours of agony following an explosion in the SECI
factory Quarto Oggiaro.
26 La Spezia: A 44-year-old worker Silvano Petacco,
dies as a result of having been bitten by a rat while
cleaning a drain a few days before.
30 Gela: Explosion during the night in the ANIC fac-
tory killing one worker, 28. Two others, 24 and 39,
die a few day later.
3 Udine: Ennio Mian, 17, kills himself because he can-
not find work.
7 Naples: Luigi Muioi, 25 and father of three, dies of
an electric shock while working in a rubber factory.
8 Trieste: A 37-year-old worker employed in the
maintenance of an incinerator falls, hitting his head
on the floor of the furnace combustion chamber and
8 Terlano: Sergio Petri, 25, dies after falling from scaf-
8 Spitietta: A 15-year-old boy is working with his fa-
ther doing painting for Michelin when he falls from
scaffolding and dies.
9 Nocera Inferiore: A 22-year-old worker dies and his
brother is seriously injured when the balcony they
are working on collapses.
9 Viccini: A 21 -year-old worker falls from scaffolding
on the third floor of a building he is working on and
12 Ravenna: Edoardo Minguzzi, 54, dies buried under
tons of chaff while working in a granary.
19 Turin: Giuseppe Ferrari, a 59-year-old worker, is
killed by an electric shock while working in an elec-
tric terminal box.
19 Moggio Udinese: Another worker is killed by an
electric shock, this time while working on a building
site. He was 23.
19 Ampezzo: A 33-year-old worker dies after falling
28 Bolzano: A cook dies after being burned in the
kitchen where he was employed.
3 1 Agrigen to: Three workers die, crushed by a crane
while working on the construction of a viaduct.
15 Porto Empedocle: A worker dies in one of the
Montedison plants, crushed by a conveyor belt,
victims of repression
7 Turin: A worker is crushed by a mechanical saw in
the Alcan aluminium factory and dies.
7 Brescia: Luciano Pitossi, 27, is killed by machine gun
fire from police patrol cars. In the past he had stolen
a car, and now he pays for it with his life.
7 3 Naples: 23-year-old Gerardo Fioravanti, suspected
of armed robbery, is shot dead by two policemen. As
always, the names of the police are not made public.
13 Milan: a 46-year-old worker gives his arm to the
bosses of SALCIM. It was pulled off by a lithographic
machine while he was working it.
7 4 Nocera Inferiore: Anna Maria, 29, goes into hospital
to be treated, but dies, and nobody knows why.
14 Naples: Coast guard captain gives orders to open
fire on a Greek ship because it does not stop at the
customs. Result: one dead, a 25-year-old sailor. Rea-
son for shooting? Suspected smuggling.
7 4 Roviga: The warehouse of a fireworks factory ex-
plodes causing the death of one of the workers.
77 Pescara: William Marinelli, 16, is killed by police.
He had stolen a car.
19 Bergamo: After 15 years of torture and being trans-
ported from one asylum to another, Palmira Valle, 29,
is found dead tied to a bed in a psychiatric hospital.
Death was due to suffocation by the sheet she was
tied up with.
27 Florence: Another death at work due to electric
shock. This time the victim was 32 and worked on
22 Naples: Seven directors at the Montefibre factory
are charged at an inquest concerning the deaths of
22 Cavarzere: A young soldier doing military service
is shot dead by a guard on duty while entering the
barracks because he did not give the password.
23 Cagliari: A nurse hangs herself for fear of being
made redundant. She had been off sick for a few
months and had received a letter from the hospital
management telling her of the probability of a sus-
pension of work.
28 Caltanissetta: The number of deaths due to ty-
phoid among the poor people of the village reaches
one hundred forty three.
28 Cutieo: Two workers are killed when the boiler
they are working on explodes.
30 Rome: Walter Rossi, a Lotta Continua militant, is
killed by fascists while giving out leaflets condemn-
ing the shooting of Elena Paccinelh by four fascists
the previous Thursday. A petrol pump attendant at a
nearby filling station was also wounded.
4 Alghero: An 88-year-old man throws himself from
rocks 45 feet high. He killed himself because, as he
had no daughters left, his sons were going to put him
into a State-run old people’s home,
victims of repression
4 L’Aqnila: Another woman employed at the ACE fac-
tory dies of cancer. She was 42 years old, mother of two
children. Two others who died recently were aged 34
and 42. All three workers had been in contact with tox-
ic substances that had been proved to be carcinogenic.
13 Naples: A 32-year-old man dies of a benign brain
tumour in the psychiatric hospital Nocera Inferiore.
Although he had shown symptoms of a brain tumour
over the past ten years, the doctors at the asylum
where he was locked up had been filling him up with
anti-epileptic drugs, and only sent him to hospital
when he was already in a coma.
15 Cliieti: Another victim of work. A 44-year-old
worker falls from the seventh floor of a building he
was demolishing. Five more children find themselves
21 Trento: A woodman dies, crushed by a tree-trunk.
Another workman dies after being struck by a huge
steel telegraph cable.
4: Three more workers die for the bosses: In Ascoli
Piceno, a 27-year-old worker at Elettro-carbonium
is crushed by a huge electrode of amorphous car-
bon. In Troina, two workers, one 32, the other 14, are
crushed by a lift while working on a building site.
The first dies, the second is seriously injured.
8 Rome: A young car thief is sentenced to death by
the city police who give chase to him and shoot and
15 Porto Marghera, Venice: Three workers at the Monte-
dison plant are victims of an accident at work. They
are seriously burned by flames from a gas tank.
15 Milan: A tank full of petrol explodes, killing one
person and leaving two seriously wounded.
2 1 November: An unknown man dies of cold. He was
found dead from exposure in his home — the street.
24 Turin: Capital punishment for 22-year-old Antonio
Torchia. He had a record for theft and robbery, and
ended up being shot in the back by a carabinieri patrol.
28 Bari: Two young communists, Benedetto Petrone
and Francesco Intrano,are attacked by fascists. Petrone
is killed, Intrano seriously wounded.
4 Olgiate: Another execution at the hands of the cara-
binieri. A young man accused of fraud did not stop at
a halt signal and the executioner shot him in the back
and neck, killing him.
8 Alghero: A 16-year-old boy is killed by private cops
while stealing a pair of shoes in a boutique. An im-
mediate demonstration of protest is organised by
comrades, resulting in clashes with the police and the
smashing of shop windows.
8 Brindisi: Three workers killed at work and fifty two
injured, at the Montedison plant.
8 Milan: Clarice Anceschi, 93, commits suicide by
throwing herself from a fourth floor window. She was
victims of repression
an internee in a hospice for old people.
1 1 Catania: Private guard at an orange grove kills a
30-year-old man for stealing a box of oranges.
1 1 Lodi: Another life to the bosses: a 20-year-old
builder falls to his death through a roof.
25 Sassari: A 21 -year-old prisoner dies. The official
version is that he banged his head against the wall
while playing around with his cellmates.
26 Milan: Mauro Larghi, a comrade ofAutonomia Op-
eraia arrested ten days ago for disarming a night guard,
dies as the result of a beating at the time of his arrest.
5 Rome: 20-year-old drug addict Bruno Santini dies
in the prison medical centre while awaiting trail.
6 Florence: A 68-year-old prisoner kills himself by
throwing himself from a third floor window.
15 Ravenna: A 73-year-old man, arrested for stealing
a bar of chocolate, hangs himself in an isolation cell
four hours after his arrest.
1 7 Afragola: A police patrol kills Giovanni D’Ambra
(20) with machine gun fire while he is escaping from
25 Lucca: Two workers are killed and five are injured
when the machine they are testing explodes.
21 Padova: Sergio Secchi, 26 and prisoner in the Cas-
tello prison, kills himself using a camping gas canister.
7 Venice: A 33-year-old porter picked up by the police
for being drunk hangs himself in a police cell.
10 Rome: A 38-year-old prisoner sentenced for theft
hangs himself in his cell. A similar episode takes place
inVercelli prison where a 56-year-old prisoner kills
17 San Donato Milanese: A 17-year-old boy is shot in
the back by police at a road block.
18 Milan: Two young anarchists, Lorenzo Ianucci and
Fausto Tinelli, are shot dead in mysterious circum-
stances. Police try to construct a confused story of
drugs around the case, but the political motivations
for the murders are all too obvious.
7 Bolzano: A man is arrested because he cheered on
hearing of Moro’s death.
9 Imperia: A 17-year-old boy dies crushed against a
lorry when he tries to avoid a road block as he was
driving a car without a licence.
1 1 Naples: A 22-year-old prisoner commits suicide by
hanging himself from the bars of his cell.
11 Torreannunziata: A 14-year-old boy is mortally
wounded by machine gun fire from carabinieri at a
4 Bologna: In a shootout with police following a rob-
bery, 21 -year-old revolutionary militant Roberto
victims of repression
Rigobello is killed by machine gun fire. Marco Ti-
rabovi is arrested.
9 Palermo: Democrazia Proletaria comrade Giuseppe
Impastato, is assassinated by the local mafia against
whom he had been fighting a courageous battle. They
exploded a charge ofTNT against him in such a way
as to confuse police reports with talk of suicide or a
failed bomb attack.
12 Venice: Following an armed robbery the police kill
Silvano Maestrello, known for his many escapes. He
had managed to regain his freedom at least seven times.
20 Naples: A 45-year-old prisoner awaiting trial com-
mits suicide in prison.
I Rome: A 25-year-old prisoner awaiting trial hangs
himself in Rebibbia prison.
3 Grosseto: A 33-year-old Moroccan is killed by a vol-
ley of machine gun fire in obscure circumstances in-
side the carabinieri barracks.
7 Cagliari: A prisoner waiting to be transferred from a
prison asylum hangs himself in his cell.
II Venice: A policeman kills a 19-year-old who was
loitering near a car.
29 Milan: A 33-year-old prisoner hangs himself in his
31 Bergamo: A young man aged 21 hangs himself in
a carabinieri barracks cell after being arrested for at-
Naples: A 17-year-old prisoner awaiting trial for steal-
ing 50,000 lire (about twenty five pounds), hangs
himself in the bathroom of the juvenile prison where
he is being held.
3 l Saluzzo: A 45-year-old prisoner arrested the pre-
vious day for shoplifting, hangs himself.
1 9 Genova: A toxic sulphurous cloud kills three work-
ers in a tannery in a few seconds, poisons many oth-
ers and spreads over the whole area. The lorry driver
who made a mistake while unloading his tank is in
prison; the factory bosses on the other hand are walk-
ing around freely.
6 Ravenna: A 20-year-old heroin addict dies in prison.
Florence: A 22-year-old woman dies following a back
24 Milan: A “patrol against sweat labour” breaks into
the porters’ cooperative Dusmet. Before leaving they
devastate the premises and take away money and vari-
politicians and party headquarters
2: An armed commando of five enter the office of the
firm Maros. They devastate the office and take away
2 million lire.
29 Milan: An armed nucleus breaks into the depot of
a door-to-door cosmetics firm. They leave a leaflet:
...Sweat labour is the main way chosen by multinational
capitalism today to realise its two basic objectives: to obtain
increased profits by remodelling productivity, and reconstruct-
ing a global command of the proletariat through the constric-
tion of wage slavery.
W Milan: An “armed band of young proletarians”
breaks into the office of Rizzoli publishers. Faces
covered by balaclavas and arms in hand, they close
the employees and clients in one room and set up
incendiary devices in the editors office that explode
simultaneously. On the walls: ‘the dens of sweat la-
bour will be closed by fire’.
30 Milan: Two bombs against youth employment of-
fices. A leaflet is left by Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari
denouncing the exploitation of the young work force.
4 Porto Marghera: A fire breaks out in a factory that
produces lenses, causing 600 million lire damage.
Claimed jointly by the Red Brigades/NAP.
26 Bologna: Nuclei Combattenti Comunisti devastate
sweatshop Mary Johns.
4 La Spezia: Luisa Spagnoli extracts her profits by specu-
lating on the backs oj proletarian prisoners. This is why one
o f her lairs has been closed. This is a leaflet left by Azi-
one Rivoluzionaria at the site of attack on one of the
Luisa Spagnoli chain of dress shops in Cagliari: Lotta
Femniinista claim a fire at the Rinascente superstore.
18 Vicenza: Organizzazione Operaia per il Comu-
nismo claim an action against a porters’ cooperative,
placing it in the struggle against sweat labour.
26 Rome: Ronde Femministe di Quartiere bomb a
baby-sitting agency, saying in a leaflet claiming the at-
tack We will no longer accept the blackmail of sweat labour.
12 Varese: The new depot of Bassani Ticino, a firm
that has got rich through the exploitation of prison-
ers, is completely destroyed in a fire claimed by Unita
1 2 Zane: A group of comrades from Autonomia Op-
eraia devastate the offices of a contracting firm that
exploits sweat labour.
21 Turin: Squadre Armate Combattente break into
the offices of an agency for domestic work, lmmobil-
politiciansand party headquarters
ise the employees and the women in charge, leaving
on the walls: Attack the dens of sweat labour.
Politicians and Party Headquarters
6 Milan: Two armed groups break into the publish-
ers Jaca Books and the editorial offices of Supermi-
lano, both linked to Comunione e Liberazione. Both
places are devastated.
15 Milan: During a demonstration in protest against
the imprisonment of four comrades three fascist dens
20 Milan: Molotovs thrown against a Christian Dem-
ocrat party premises and a car parked outside a church.
27 Rome: Seven people break into the cultural cen-
tre run by Christian Democrats and Comunione e
Liberazione. The centre is wrecked. Action claimed
by Lotta Armata per il Comunismo.
3 1 Milan: A nucleus of comrades breaks into a pizze-
ria where the hard core fascists of the area congregate,
and where some of the thugs’ actions are coordinated.
The pizzeria is completely destroyed and some of its
regular customers wounded.
4 Turin: A fascist meeting place. Bar Sergio, is devas-
25 Salerno: Comrades break into the Augusto theatre
where the Communist Party and Christian Demo-
crats are together celebrating the anniversary of the
Resistance. The Christian Democrats are manhan-
dled and their flag set fire to.
29 Milan: MSI provincial councillor Enrico Pedinovi
is brought to justice with five pistol shots.
30 Rome: Library of ancient Spanish History is set fire
to. Claimed by nucleus defining itself International
Brigade Paeredes Manot. A leaflet left in a nearby
telephone box reads: The Francoist den Villalbani has
been destroyed. Disguised as a Spanish library, this place con-
cealed many liaison activities between the neo-fascist organ-
isations of central Europe, a shunting point for the clandestine
activities oj the many Italian fascists involved in the Borghese
coup, and the bombings of Avanguardia Nazionale.
6 Rome: The cinema Barberini is set fire to prior to a
9 Padova: Just before an MSI meeting is due to take
place a group of comrades wreck and set fire to a
fascist lair and destroy it completely.
17 Milan: Comrades close the electoral campaign. Af-
ter an MSI meeting a lorry belonging to the firm
that had put up the stage where the fascists spoke was
burned. The same thing happens to the Nazi group
meeting place Alternativa, and the MSI rooms in
Corso Genova. The celebration ends with the burn-
ing of a pizzeria that was the areas fascist haunt.
26: Christian Democrat member’s car burned.
politicians and party headquarters
Claimed by Lotta Armata per il Comunismo.
27 Padova: Three people break into the premises of
Mondo Libero, a fascist newspaper. Those present are
tied up, and the three take away various documents.
The emblem of the Red Brigades is drawn on the wall.
2 Milan: After knocking down the wall with a pick-
axe, comrades break into the fascist premises on viale
Murillo. They completely destroy the offices and
burn furniture and documents in the street.
5 Candoglia: Unita Comuniste Conrbattente claim an
attack against the Christian Democrat premises.
13 Varese: Two molotovs and a shower of bullets
against the Christian Democrat rooms.
20 Carrara: Christian Democrat rooms devastated and
set fire to.
30 Florence: Christian Democrat rooms burned. Other
attacks against a Savings Bank and carabinieri bar-
10: Unita combattente comuniste enter the appart-
ment of PSDI deputy, tie him up, search the house
and take the money they find.
1 Milan: A Red Brigades cell breaks into the offices
of Democrazia Nuova. Those present are tied up and
a million lire expropriated.
14 Vicenza: Headquarters of Centro Cristiano Lavora-
tori (Centre for Christian Workers) are broken into and
documents removed. Lotta Armata per il Comunismo.
15 Taranto: PLI headquarters devastated. In Naples a
Christian Democrat premises is burned. In Rome an
explosion damages MSI headquarters, and the Co-
munione e Liberazione premises are attacked.
/ 0 Rome: EUR Congress Palace become a target for
explosions that go off in the entrance hall, stopping
an MSI meeting from taking place. Action claimed by
24 Turin: Three Christian Democrats' cars burned.
6 Rome: Gruppo Guerriglieri Maria Cagol carry out
a series of attacks including the destruction of a car
belonging to a notorious fascist.
10 Bologna: Seven molotovs are thrown against the
premises of Comunione e Liberazione, more against
a Christian Democrat premises. Later in the day a
Christian Democrat and a fascist meeting place are
13 Bari: MSI and Christian Democrat premises set
afire, as well as the car of a fascist district councillor.
22 Naples: Fascist meeting place Contro Corrente is
set afire after a trades union meeting.
24 Bologna: Two cars belonging to Christian Demo-
politiciansand party headquarters
crat councillors are burned.
2/ Spoleto: MSI rooms destroyed by fire caused by
3 Florence: Reparti Comunisti di Combattimento
claim three actions against local Christian Democrats,
all bomb attacks against premises.
7 Rome: High explosive charge goes off in the private
office of Minister for Home Affairs, Cossiga. Lotta
Armata per il Comunismo claim the action.
19 Genoa: A Red Brigades cell burns four cars: two
belonging to industrialists, and two belonging to
Christian Democrat town councillors.
20 Turin: Ten pistol shots are fired by a commando at
a Christian Democrat councillor, but the shots miss
28 Milan: Car belonging to a regional councillor is
burned — action claimed by the Red Brigades.
l Ve rona: Molotov thrown against Christian Democrat
4 San Benedetto del Trento: A Red Brigades cell claims
the burning of regional councillor’s car.
27 Milan: Three cars belonging to Comunione e Liber-
azione members burned by “a group of comrades.”
20 Cagliari: A group of comrades from the ‘autono-
mists’ beat up a few of the CP reactionaries in front of
30 Rome: The houses of two fascists are the targets of
molotovs thrown during the night. Minister of the
treasury’s car also goes up in flames. A leaflet claiming
these actions is signed young proletarians.
1 1 Genoa: One of the most important figures among
the local Christian Democrats is shot in the arms and
legs by the Red Brigades.
1 1 Rome: Mario Perlini of Comunione e Liberazione
receives three pistol shots in the legs from the Red
13 Turin: A Christian Democrat councillor is shot in
the legs by the Red Brigades.
5 Nuoro: During the night the town hall is broken
into and an ass, stolen from a neighbouring courtyard,
is tied to the mayor’s desk.
13 Rome: A group of comrades break into a Chris-
tian Democrat party premises and take away files and
23 Milan: A Christian Democrat councillor is lamed
by the Red Brigades. Action is claimed in the name
of the RAF comrades.
24 Trieste: Attacks against Christian Democrat rooms
and against the home of a fascist councillor, claimed
by Ronda Proletaria.
25 Turin: Another Christian Democrat worthy is
politicians and party headquarters
lamed by the Red Brigades.
26 Massa: Christian Democrat official’s car burned.
26 Rome: Cars belonging to various Christian Demo-
crats in the city burned.
27 Genoa: Another five Christian Democrats’ cars
2 Rome: A Christian Democrat director and supporter
of the iron fist against ‘terrorism’ is killed by thirteen
shots from the Red Brigades
12 Aquila: Unita comunista close a Christian Demo-
crat lair by fire.
14 Rome: Molotov attack against fascist den in the
6 Bergamo: Squadre Operaie Armate claim attacks
against Euroschool and a Christian Democrat premises.
12 Rome: Bomb devastates lair of fascists belonging to
12 Trento: Bomb attack against Tecnofin, meeting
place for Christian Democrat and Communist Party
members. Claimed by Prima Linea.
1 7 Reggio Emilia: Christian Democrat premises bombed.
Police arrest a member of Gymnasio Nihilista.
20 Rome: Nuclei Armate Territorial destroy the pow-
erful motorbike of one of the CP strong-arm boys.
2 1 Rome: Cars of three Christian Democrat members
go up in flames — claimed in a telephone call by Red
25 Como: Bomb explodes in the night in front of MSI
3 1 Bolzano: Christian Democrat provincial headquar-
ters set afire.
/ Trento: Ronde Proletarie claim the bombing of Com-
munist Party provincial federation.
/ Lamezia Terme: Car of a MSI provincial councillor
goes up in flames. A leaflet signed Red Brigades claims
3 Padova: Organizzazione Operaia per il Comunismo
attack seven Christian Democrat premises in protest
against the sentences of two comrades in Padova courts.
5 Cagliari: A molotov explodes against a Christian
7 Rome: Many comrades have been attacked and
wounded by fascists who are, as always, protected by
the police. This evening, a group of comrades bring
to justice two fascist thugs who were leaving their lair,
arms in hand, to begin new attacks. A third fascist is
killed by carabinieri during crossfire in front of the
same premises. The execution of the two fascists is
claimed by Nuclei Armati per il Contropotere Terri-
8 Bari: Attempts made to burn two MSI premises.
10 Luras: Christian Democrat mayor’s car explodes,
politicians and party headquarters
10 Trieste: Two molotovs explode against provincial
Christian Democrat headquarters. One comrade is ar-
rested but others manage to free him.
12 Cagliari: Explosion in front of Christian Democrat
headquarters — Ronda Proletaria.
12 Potenza: Headquarters of the provincial Christian
Democrat committee are ransacked and set fire to.
12 Naples: A homemade bomb explodes in front of
1 8 Genoa: A Red Brigades cell wounds member of the
CP provincial committee and director of a business
school Professor Filippo Peschiera in the legs.
28 Rome: Nuclei CombattentiTerritoriali burn the car
belonging to a CP lawyer known for his work on the
party’s dossier against political violence.
30 Naples: Bomb attacks against three Christian Dem-
12 Erma: Three molotovs explode against MSI prem-
ises the day after Almirante’s visit.
16 Portici: Christian Democrat police chief’s car de-
stroyed by molotovs.
24 Rome: Christian Democrat premises burned.
26 Brescia: Rivoluzionari Anti-imperialisti Comunisti
attack the building housing the offices of a Christian
Democrat senator and the provincial secretary of the
26 Ostia: A known local fascist’s car goes up in smoke
during the night.
28 Bologna:Duringthe night five Christian Democrat
area offices are burned, as well as a Comunione e
3 Cerignola: Explosion at a villa being built by a local
Christian Democrat party official.
5 Rome: Car belonging to magistrate and president of
the Technical Institute is burned.
5 Ribera: Bomb against MSI premises.
6 Cinciello: Organizzazione Proletaria per il Comu-
nismo attack Comunione e Liberazione spokesman.
7 Arlww: Burning of the house and car belonging to a
paediatrician, one of the protagonists in the infamous
8 Cavarzere: Incediary bomb against Christian Demo-
/ 0 Rome: Two bombs during the night — the first at
the Italian Association gymnasium, the other at a
Christian Democrat party office.
10 Rome: Nucleo Comunista Armato Francesco Lo
Russo blows up two Christian Democrat premises,
and two carabinieri barracks.
1 0 Ravenna: Failed bomb attack on Christian Demo-
crat party premises.
10 Messina: A molotov is thrown against the Christian
14 Milan: Incendiary bomb against the Don Minzoni
politiciansand party headquarters
14 San Benedetto del Trento: A bar belonging to a
Christian Democrat councillor is set on fire.
16 Rome: At 9.30 am, in via Fani, a Red Brigades
column attack the car escort of Christian Democrat
leader Aldo Moro.They eliminate five policemen and
kidnap the Christian Democrat president. The same
morning parliament concedes the first government
that includes Communist Party votes.
7 Rome: During the nightTNT explosions take place
in front of two Christian Democrat premises.
7 Turin: Cars belonging to two Christian Democrat
politicians are burned in an action claimed by the
1 4 Venice: TNT against two Christian Democrat party
offices, and pistol shots against the home of a Chris-
tian Democrat provincial councillor, claimed by Pro-
letari Comunisti Organizzati.
15 Genoa: Red Brigades claim the burning of three
cars belonging to Christian Democrat members.
22 Omni: The car of Christian Democrat councillor
is blown up.
25 Rome: A Christian Democrat leading councillor
mixed up in affairs of the Mafia, is shot in the legs by
the Red Brigades.
25 Cormano: Christian Democrat party premises al-
most completely destroyed in an explosion.
29 Cagliari: Bomb during the night against Christian
/ Ostia. ’Cars belonging to two local fascists are burned.
1 Sassari: Bomb attack against provincial headquarters
of the Italian Liberal Party.
4 Rome: Fornrazioni Proletarie Armate plunder a ‘so-
cial promotion centre’ run by Christian Democrats.
9 Rome: At 13.30, a few yards from the Christian
Democrat and Communist Party offices in via Caeta-
ni, the body of Aldo Moro is found in the boot of a
Renault car, following a telephone communication.
He had been shot eleven times. The unions call an-
other general strike. The family refuse a State funeral.
10 Santa Sofia: A comrade is arrested following a
bomb attack against a Christian Democrat office.
10 Trapani: The flat belonging to Christian Democrat
party chairman of public works is burned.
12 Milan:iTed Brigades Walter Alesia Column lame a
Christian Democrat director.
12 Pisa: An incendiary bomb goes off under the car of
a Christian Democrat provincial secretary.
13 Ravenna: Christian Democrat premises and a cath-
olic radio station destroyed by fire.
21 Asti: Formazioni Combattenti Comuniste and
Prima Linea claim a bomb attack against the provin-
cial headquarters of the Christian Democrats.
2 1 Ostia: Bomb at local MSI party offices,
politicians and party headquarters
27 Rome: Explosion at a Christian Democrat centre,
claimed by Formazioni Armate Proletarie.
2 Rome: Bombing of three Christian Democrat party
3 Venice: Proletari Comunisti Organizzati claim the
bombing of the homes of three fascists, members of
Fronte della Gioventu.
8 Turin: Squadre Proletarie di Combattimento wound
doctor Giacomo Ferrero with pistol shots. Fie is a
known fascist, who in the past has been sentenced
/ 6 Palermo: Bomb against ACLI headquarters.
16 Bologna: Cellule Comuniste Combattenti set fire
to two Christian Democrats’ cars.
18 Rozzano: Failed incendiary attack against Chris-
tian Democrat premises.
1 9 Aosta: A nucleus for direct attack of Azione Riv
oluzionaria explode a bomb in the regional offices of
the Christian Democrats.
25Tctnpio Pausania: Dynamite attack against the home
of Christian Democrat mayor ofAglientu.
25 Trieste: Bomb attack on the home of Chris-
tian Democrat vice-president of the regional junta.
Claimed by Nuclei Comunisti per Contropotere.
29 Milan: Cinema Fontana is burned. It served as a
meeting place for Comunione e Liberazione.
/ Venice: Incendiary attack devastates headquarters of
Acli di Mirano, an organisation responsible for reduc-
ing employment in hospitals.
15 Turin: Piedmont region computer centre is set fire
to by Prirna Linea, and computers are destroyed.
15 Padova: Ronde Armate Proletarie destroy a car be-
longing to university lecturer Pietro Dlogu.
15 Treviso: Ronde Armate Proletarie burn down the
door of a university professor’s house.
/ 9 Rome: Christian Democrat councillor’s car burned.
28 Rome: Dynamite attack against Christian Demo-
crat party premises.
26 Rome: Bombing of two notorious fascist lairs: the
restaurant II Fungo and the Hotel Satellite in Ostia.
7 Trento: Incendiary attack against office of Christian
Democrat deputy and vice-president of a parliamen-
12 Rome: Three MSI party premises are attacked with
bombs, as is the shop of a well-known fascist.
14 Lucca: Lotta Arnrata per il Comunismo claim
the dynamite attack against the villa belonging to a
Christian Democrat parliamentarian.
14 Marano Vicentino: Molotov thrown against local
Christian Democrat headquarters.
20 Padova: Socialist Party councillor and university
politicians and party headquarters
director is wounded by gun shots fired by two com-
rades of Fronte Combattente Conrunista.
26 Bologna: Nuclei Sconvolti per la Sovversione Ur-
bana explode two bombs against the home of the
27 Naples: A group of “organised unemployed work-
ers” occupy the party offices of the Communist Party
in protest against the politics of the Left junta.
Comunione E Liberazione — a catholic fascist organisa-
tion, predominantly composed of students and young
catholics. Although it is not a party, its organisational
form is that of the tightly centralised Stalinist type.
Democrazia Cristiana (Christian Democrats) — a Cen-
tre party of catholic inspiration. It confirmed its place
as the major party in Italy in the recent elections.
Partito Comunista (Communist Party) is the largest
Communist Party in Western Europe. In March 1978
their votes were conceded by parliament to support the
Christian Democrats in government, and today they
have surpassed the latter in their policies on repression.
This party is a vital instrument for Italian capitalism s
transition to a social democratic model. However, they
showed considerable losses in recent elections.
MSI — Movimento Sociale Italiano
Right-wing party carrying on the fascist tradition
PLI — Partito Liberate Italiano
Italian Liberal Party, moderate Rightwing party
ACLI — Associazione Cattolica Lavoratore I tali cine
Catholic Workers’ Association
PSDI — Partito Socialista Democratica Italiano
moderate leftwing party, a breakaway from the So-
CGIL — Confederazione Generate Italiana Del Lavoro
left wing union, dominated by the Communist
party, with a Socialist minority
CISL — Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori
confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions, dominat-
ed by the Christian Democrats.
UIL — Unione Italiana Lavoratori
smallest of the three largest federations, dominated
by the Socialists.
4th Confederation after the CGIL, CISL and UIL.
Has a publicly acclaimed affinity with the neo-fas-
cist national party, the MSI.
17 Turin: At the FIAT sabotage carried out by the
workers in the paint department is disclaimed by the
union bureaucrats as the work of of provocateurs. The
area secretary of the CGIL has to face ten thousand
workers shouting insults and calling for direct action.
26 Cassino: FIAT workers refuse to wait until 1978 to
have half an hour for lunch, and take it directly. They
reduce the working day by half an hour themselves
and if the bus driver refuses to leave, we will take his place,
if no one is able to drive the bus, we’ll tear it apart.
28 Genoa: Red Brigades break into Intersind (trade
union confederation) offices, chain up employees and
take away files.
3 Turin: Wrath against the unions’ contract. Workers at
the FIAT Rivalta paint shop and Mirafiori leave work
half an hour early.
5 Turin: The union bureaucrat who has come to speak
of the agreement reached at Mirafiori andTrentin is
assailed with oranges and bolts. Only 500-600 work-
ers out of 20,000 turn up at the meeting.
4 Cassino: Following the wounding of a FIAT man-
ager an unsigned leaflet was found: with today’s warning
we want to remind those personages of a few facts that the
workers have all carefully noted: Pettinotti (the victim) con-
trols the network offascists of the CISNAL, always active in
spying on comrades who are in the front line of the struggle...
16 Sassari: Two comrades are arrested, accused of
throwing nrolotovs against the CISNAL offices.
30 Palermo: Intersind offices broken into by four com-
rades.They lock the employees in the toilet and place
a bomb which destroys the offices. Action claimed by
Unitek Combattenti Comunisti.
24 Sanremo: During an anti-Christmas demonstration,
comrades devastate the headquarters of the CISNAL,
throwing furniture and documents into the street.
Fifteen people are arrested.
17: Wild strikes in the Italian hospitals against the
unions’ management of the contract, and putting for-
ward their own claims. In Naples, Florence, Palermo,
and Milan the hospital workers have been fighting
for days. The army is brought in to the Polyclinico in
Rome to serve patients’ meals.
30 Milan: a group of workers of the Comitato di Lotta
dell’Unidal (autonomous group in the Motta Alle-
magna cake factory) break into a meeting between
trade union leaders and directors, beat up a CGIL bu-
reaucrat and one of the factory directors. The police
intervene and workers in all departments go on strike.
Factories and the Industrial Hierarchy
/ / Turin: Sabotage by workers at the FIAT where they
mix paint colours, causing damage and loss of time. At-
factories and the industrial hierarchy
tempts by union bureaucrats to pass this off a simple
‘mistake’ are publicly denounced by the workers.
26 Bergamo: Three people shoot Philco Bosch man-
ager outside the factory and leave a communique de-
nouncing his part in restructuring the factory — sack-
ing militants and increasing exploitation. Signed by
Lotta Armata per ll Comunismo.
26 Genoa: A Standa superstore depot destroyed by fire,
after telephone warning.
26 Rivalat: FIAT workers block gates refusing entry
to goods and managers. Three foremens’ cars burned
during the night.
27 Turin: Sabotage in the upholstery dept, at FIAT
Mirafiori. Material ready for assembly lines is burned.
2 Crescenzago: Chief security guard of Magneti
Marelli shot in the legs for spying on and denounc-
ing workers. Communique left by an armed com-
3 Turin: A workshop at the FIAT Mirafiori is com-
pletely destroyed by fire. “An armed nucleus has de-
stroyed some of the profit of Agnelli’s imperialist mul-
tinational. This is only the beginning” is the message
phoned to ANSA news agency.
8 Milan: A building of the Motta cake factory is de-
stroyed by fire.
1 0 Turin: Two Standa warehouses and a large clothing
13 Turin: Eight shots fired at a FIAT foreman, claimed
by Red Brigades who also destroy the cars belonging
to two others.
1 4 Rivalta: Fire in the FIAT tyre depot. The action is
criticised by the Red Brigades who issue a statement
saying they are against the destruction of goods.
14 Florence: Two Texaco offices burnt — action claimed
by Formazione Comuniste Armate.
1 1 Turin: FIAT Mirafiori — a car is set fire to in the
lubrication tunnel, causing damage to other cars and
to the tunnel itself.
1 6 Porto Marghera: Red Brigades claim destruction of
Montedison technician’s car.
16 Rome: A Standa depot is burned, claimed by
Squadra d'Azione Cagol.
21 Rome: President of an oil tanker company shot in
legs by Formazione Comuniste Armate.
21 Brescia: Red Brigades raid Industrial Association
headquarters and take away files.
7 Turin: A FIAT goods store is burned.
10 Rome: Explosion in front of German travel agency,
linked to the murder of Ulrike Meinhof in her prison
20 Rome: Syrian airline offices destroyed by explosion:
link to massacres carried out by that government in
factories andthe industrial hierarchy
7 7 Rome: Brazilian airline company bombed. Molo-
tovs thrown at the American Honeywell offices and a
Israeli travel agency.
7 7 Turin: Two branches of Banca Commerciale at-
tacked by Combattenti Armati per il Comunismo in
protest against their involvement in Pinochet regime.
22 Rome: Two explosions: one damages shop of Ira-
nian with CIA connections, the other is against West-
inghouse, American industrial group.
26 Rome: Zionist and American objectives struck be-
fore and after demonstration in solidarity with Pales-
tinian resistance in the Lebanon. Explosion destroys
goods depot owned by Israeli ex-ambassador to Italy;
Molotovs against American Joint; two Bank of Amer-
ica branches assailed by molotovs and a goods depot
of ITT affiliate Avis is bombed.
7 Milan: Large group of comrades enter and devastate
South African Consulate.
6 Turin: Italian International Computers broken into
by three armed men and a woman. They set fire to
offices after getting staff to leave premises.
75 Milan: Workers of Motta cake factory who face
twenty eight hundred redundancies, chase director in
charge of restructuring out of the factory.
20 Milan: Upim store plundered; pharmaceutical in-
stitute De Angeli is attacked and many machines de-
22 Turin: Four supervisors at the FIAT find their cars
burnt in the street.
25 Genoa: Red Brigades claim the burning of cars be-
longing to directors ofAsgen, Intersider and Ansaldo.
27 Avellino: Two armed cells attack and destroy head-
quarters of Unione Industrial Irpini.
8 Naples: Italsider foreman’s car burned.
12 Milan: Raid on headquarters of Assofarma (phar-
maceutical industrial association) by Unita Comu-
niste Combattente, who take away card-index, money,
and directors wallet.
1 6 Sesto San Giovanni: Red Brigades cell breaks into
directors’ car park, destroys two cars and damages fif-
30 Turin: Directors’ offices of FIAT Turin group bro-
ken into by a Prima Linea commando. Secret files
and indexes are taken away.
3 Monzesi: At the opening of industrial association
headquarters a Prima Linea commando break in and
start a fire which destroys three offices.
15 Florence: Six house-letting agencies hit by explosions
claimed by Reparti Comunisti di Combattimento.
19 Milan: Fornrazione Combattente break into
Montedison offices, immobilise staff, and damage
factories and the industrial hierarchy
22 Rome: Eleven central telephone lines in residential
areas burned in relation to recent increases in charges.
1 977 January
20 Genoa: Two local industrialists’ cars destroyed by
fire, claimed by the Red Brigades.
29 Milan: Electroware domestic appliances firm bro-
ken into and devastated by molotovs. Action claimed
by ‘group of young proletarians’ in protest against ex-
ploitation of the young work force for cheap labour.
1 Turin: Face Standard (ITT subsidiary) headquarters
under construction damaged by explosives.
4 Turin: Prima Linea Commandos raid offices of As-
sociation of Light Industry, then set fire to them.
4 Milan: An ‘armed group of workers’ breaks into the
offices of Pubblilabor (a job agency), immobilises staff,
and takes away files and money.
8 Turin: Cars belonging to directors of Aeritalia (air-
line company) destroyed by fire.
10 Rome: Electrolux and Standastores plundered.
/ 8 Turin: Two FIAT managers shot in the legs by Red
2 Turin: Tens of millions of lire damage caused by fire
in the Mirafiori FIAT.
10 Reggio Calabria: Unita Combattenti Comuniste
commandos break into Reggio Industrial Confed-
eration headquarters and remove documents.
/ / Bologna: Red Brigades cell breaks into office of
Gabetti (construction company) and takes away files
18 Milan: Marelli headquarters broken into by 11
comrades who left from a march. They remove wal-
lets from those present and set fire to the building.
24 Piedimonte S. Gennaro: Electric generator for FIAT
supply destroyed by bomb.
29 Rome: General Manager of Poligrafico di Stato
(State printing, prints banknotes) shot in the legs.
15 Reggio Calabria: Liquid Chemical plant broken into
by a commando who immobilise guards, damage a
computer and the department which produces bio-
proteins. Leaflet left by Unita Comuniste Combattente
19 Genoa: Red Brigades cell burn four cars belonging
to industrialists and Christian Democrat politicians.
21 Milan: Computer destroyed by a Gruppo Com-
battente Comuniste cell in University Bocconi. The
University is one of the centres most advanced in the
preparation of anti-worker techniques.
22 Turin: FIAT foreman shot in the legs by Red Bri-
30 Turin: At 2 am, a bomb explodes at the Facis cloth-
ing factory, at 5 am, another explodes in front of
Michelin, then the employment offices and the tele-
factoriesandthe industrial hierarchy
phone exchange, and finally an incendiary device is
thrown against the heating plant of a factory infa-
mous for its exploitation of women and children in
the production of biro pens.
30 Padova: RTR television company and Pinton In-
dustrial Electror is hit by molotovs and cars are set
30 Genoa: Kidnappers of the president of FIAT-
France demand 25 billion lira, and the liberation of
16 Palermo: Dynamite attack against the SIP (tele-
phone co.) offices.
18 Bologna: Vice-president of confederation of indus-
try finds his car burnt to the ground.
18 Alcanto: At a FIAT dealers two transporters and a
number of cars are damaged.
18 Syracuse: Car of a local industrialist is burned.
18 Palermo: Building constructor’s villa partly de-
stroyed by dynamite.
18 Milan: ISEO (society for managerial training)
headquarters broken into by Prima Linea comman-
19 Turin: Explosion at headquarters of Pia S. Paolo
19 Florence: A nucleus of four comrades wreck the of-
fices of Cicasc business consultants.
26 Florence: A ‘proletarian combatent cell’ break into
and damage electricity showroom.
8 Milan: BMW showroom assailed by molotovs,
claimed by Grupp Ulrike Meinhof.
9 Milan: A foreman at the Breda armaments fac-
tory is shot in the legs by the Red Brigades Walter
10 Rome: Three men and a woman completely de-
stroy the computer belonging to the faculty coordi-
nating centre at the city university.
13 Milan: A Prima Linea commando break into and
remove documents from the Federation of Industrial
1 7 Genoa: A transporter belonging to IMPA (a factory
that produces wrapping material, which has just made
half its employees redundant) is destroyed by fire.
19 Milan: A Prima Linea cell claim responsibility for
attacks against the multinationals SIT Seinrens and
20 Prato: About twenty cars destroyed and as many
damaged by Prima Linea.
2 / Rome: A commando of three women shoot the
president of the Faculty of Business Economics.
Claimed by the Red Brigades.
22 Pistoia: A Breda executive is shot in the legs by
27 Pomilliano: Combatant Workers for Communism
shoot an Alfa Romeo foreman in the legs,
factories andthe industrial hierarchy
28 Genoa: The Red Brigades fire four shots into the
legs of an Ansaldo engineer.
30 Turin: A FIAT manager is shot in the legs and
chest — action claimed by the Red Brigades.
30 Milan: A manager of OM (transporters) is shot in
the legs by the Red Brigades.
30 Pordenone: Three railwagons containing Zanussi
domestic appliances blown up. Prima Linea claim
the action. Unions call a strike of solidarity with the
30 Bologna: Unexploded bomb found at entrance to
industrial confederation offices.
29 Milan: Swissair offices badly damaged by an explo-
sion. A leaflet is left, signed by Prima Linea, denounc-
ing that country’s hospitality to the multinationals of
exploitation and death, and the holding of comrade
Petra Krause in prison.
2 Turin: Ipca dye factory notorious for the number of
its workers who have died of cancer of the bladder, is
damaged by two bombs signed ‘Armed Nucleus for
6 Milan: The offices of ANIC are hit by an explosion
claimed by ‘Revolutionary Proletarian Bands’, fol-
lowing the deaths of two workers.
28 Naples: Three bombs explode in front of Roche
Pharmaceuticals. Action claimed by an Unita Comu-
14 Novara: A 41 -year-old worker stabs his boss in the
back and disappears.
19 Taranto: Over 80 billion lire damage to an Italsider
furnace caused by workers.
19 Milan: In an action of propaganda against the ris-
ing cost of living, a libertarian group give out leaflets
and smash ticket machines on 77 buses. Passengers
support the action.
22 Turin: Fire at FIAT Mirafiori claimed by workers’
cell Tonino Micciche, a comrade from Lotta Conti-
nua was killed there by a night guard some time ago.
25 Bologna: On the last night of a massive meeting
against repression, where around 50,000 comrades
have assembled from all over Italy, an explosion dam-
ages the window of a Volkswagen showroom. Action
claimed by Azione Rivoluzionaria.
29 Florence: Super, Galardi, and American Agency (all
property speculators), raided and burned. Actions
claimed by Squadre Proletariat Combattenti.
18 Turin: Prima Linea raid the Association of Industri-
al Directors, and take away documents and files. They
explode two molotovs before leaving.
1 8 Florence: Prima Linea break into the area union of-
fices and take away files on employees.
20: In protest against the assassinations in Stammheim
factoriesandthe industrial hierarchy
and Mogadishu, there are bomb attacks against Ger-
man car dealers and TIR lorries in many cities.
21 Trento: On the walls ‘10, 100, 1,000 Schleyers’;
Barricades in Milan against the police; molotovs in
Vicenza against German car dealer. Attacks in various
22 Milan, Diano Marina, Imperia, Bolzano, Cagliari, Sas-
sari, Reggie Emilia, Naples: Some of the places where
actions continue against German car showrooms and
22 Milan: Molotovs against the Mercedes belonging
the consul, and against the Consulate of Ecuador to
draw attention to the dozens and dozens of workers
assassinated by the army of that country. ATM and
TWA also hit.
23 Brescia: A policeman is wounded trying to save a
Mercedes dealer from an attack. Other actions against
German interests continue in other cities.
24 Palermo: During demonstrations of protest against
Stammheim and Mogadishu, aVolkwagen showroom
and a Sicilian cement works are bombed.
25: Another day of actions against German interests
in many cities.
26 Rome: Opel, General Motors and Siemans dealers
bombed during the night.
26 Pistoia: Bomb attack at BMW showroom.
29 Brescia: Ream and a branch of A.G.E.-Telefunken
30Turin: Revolutionary Group Andreas Baader claim
bombing of Mercedes showroom.
30 Milan: Two nrolotovs against Mercedes showroom.
4 Padova: House letting agency Stinra is destroyed by
8 Milan: A manager at the assembly dept of Alfa Ro-
meo is lamed by the Red Brigades.
8 Florence: Hoechst Italia pharmaceutical company
(affiliate of German company) is bombed.
8 Cagliari: Attacks against Volkswagen, Auto Union
10 Turin: A work study offices is lamed by the Red
12 Bologna, Cagliari and Turin: Anti-German attacks
14 Genoa: Ronda Proletaria claim bomb attack on an
16 S. Benedetto del Trento: Lotta Armata per il Comu-
nismo claim attack against BMW.
1 1 Genoa: An Ansaldo manager assailed by seven bul-
lets, claimed by Red Brigades.
29 Genoa . 'Cars of two directors at Italsider are burnt —
claimed by Red Brigades.
5 Turin: An ‘armed communist cell’ bombs the uphol-
stery deptartment of FIAT Mirafiori.
5 Genoa: An armed communist cell claims action
factories andthe industrial hierarchy
against German trade centre.
6 Bergamo: Squadre Armate Operaie claim attack
12 Milan: Prima Linea claim dynamite attack during
night against Credito S. Paolo bank (bank of the Vati-
17 Turin: Explosion blasts Alfa Romeo showroom.
Many cars damaged.
4 Cassino: Head of private police at the FIAT brought
to justice by Operaie Armate per il Comunismo: An-
other of Agnelli’s police is wounded at the same time.
The unions call the usual strike against terrorism — 2.35
per cent adhere, i.e. thirty workers out of 1,500.
9 Taranto: Sabotage at Italsider. Traces of explosive
material found in the trucks that link the centre to
10 Twin: Unita Comuniste Combattenti explode a
bomb outside the house of second in charge of secu-
rity guards of the FIAT-OM. A Red Brigades com-
mando wound a foreman at the FIAT-Mirafiori in the
legs and arms.
10 Zingonia: Squadre Operaie Armate set fire to the
goods depot of Comet domestic appliances against po-
litical sackings and restructuring at the Philco Ritalco.
10 hnperia: Twelve molotovs thrown against the luxu-
rious villa belonging to a local industrialist.
/ 3 Rome: The Red Brigades kneecap the area manager
of the SIP.
24 Milan: Chief of trade union relations at the SIT-
Siemens wounded by Red Brigades.
24 Laminate: General manager of Nuova Innocenti
pulls a gun on a group of workers who break into his
office. The men disarm him and teach him a lesson in
spite of efforts of members of the Factory Council to
28 Turin: Workers occupying the Accarini factory and
who have been evicted by the police before, move to
direct action. Pistol shots ring out against a foreman’s
house during the night. Next day one of the man-
agers is encircled and only freed after having been
taught a lesson.
30 Turin: Fire at the CEAT (tyres) causing millions of
31 Padova: Workers’ Organisation for Communism
claim many explosions in the area against factories and
the homes of industrialists.
31 Milan: Squadre Armate Operaie shoot the owner of
a print shop in the legs. Fie was responsible for shoot-
ing a trade unionist five years before.
l Bologna: Squadre Armate Operaie claim in attack
against the home of a small industrialist.
1 Sassari: Millions of lire damage to a FIAT subsidiary
as a result of four molotovs.
factories and the industrial hierarchy
2 Cosenza: A group Lotta Armata per il Comunis-
mo break into the Savings Bank computer centre
and detonate an explosive charge causing irreparable
damage to machines and tape archives.
16 Milan: Reparti Operai Combattenti Comunisti
wound an Alfa Romeo executive in the legs. He was
responsible for the employment of invalid and handi-
1 6 Rome: To attack State organisms means to attack the
State — Ronde Proletarie in leaflet claiming an explo-
sion against the technical office of the SIP (telephone).
1 9 Turin: Plastic explosive attack against FIAT agent.
21 Turin: A paper bomb explodes inside the FIAT at
24 Trieste: A group of four comrades raid the industri-
al confederation headquarters and a property agency.
A house belongs to who lines in it.
21 Naples: Ten molotovs thrown against the offices of
Iran Air offices.
1 Turin: An electricity cable supplying the FIAT Mira-
fiori is hit by two explosive charges.
1 Milan: SPED electronic centre is put out of use
by four comrades who pour sulphuric acid over the
5 Modena: A paper bomb explodes in the SPE (adver-
tising agency) offices.
7 Milan: Fire bomb against the Nuova Innocenti, Nu-
clei Operai Armati..
72 Siena: Gruppi Armati per il Comunismo claim an
attack against Unipol insurance. Organizazzioni Op-
eraie per il Comunismo strike the homes of the di-
rector and an executive of Eurofur tur factory.
22 Modena, Parma, Reggio Emilia: Various bomb attacks
claimed by Nuclei Armati delle Cellule Combattenti.
22 Milan: Incendiary bomb against two SIP trans-
22 Turin: Nuclei Proletari Comunisti destroy the car
of a director of Accarini. The company had been at
the centre of a hard struggle against redundancies.
6 Rome: A series of bombings at a BMW showroom,
a Simca showroom, and a branch of Banco di Roma.
7 Genoa: Red Brigades shoot president of local indus-
try in the legs.
7 7 Siena: Nucleo Armato Comunista causes hundreds
of nnllions of lira of damage by setting fire to an UPIM
13 Rome: Nine molotovs thrown against the headquar-
ters of the national association of building constructors.
19 Turin: Upholstery department at FIAT Mirafiori set
afire, causing millions of lire damage.
27 Milan: Prima Linea raid a business consultant’s
22 Padova: A university lecturer who is also president
of the publishers Gazzetino, and director of a bank, is
factories and the industrial hierarchy
shot in the legs by Nucelo Combattenti per il Comu-
23 Milan: Proletari Comunsti per il Contropotere reply
to the introduction of Saturday work at Alfa Romeo by
bombing five showrooms, damaging many cars.
27 Turin: One of the FIAT Mirafiori managers is
lamed by a Red Brigades nucleus.
29 Arezzo: A fire is started in a department of the Stan-
29 Rowe: Two incendiary bombs explode against the
offices of Sarom (petrol company) and the canteen of
the Feder consortium.
30: In response to Saturday overtime at Alfa Romeo —
Rome: Squadre Armate Operaie blow up four show-
room windows; Naples : Unita Comuniste Armate set
fire to a number of cars at Alfa Romeo; Turin: Nuclei
Operai Comunisti attack three car dealers’ showrooms;
Padova: fire damage to spare parts department of Alfa
Romeo by Proletari Comunisti Organizzati.
l Padova: Gruppo comunista organizzato claim three
bombings in the province, one against an industrial-
ist’s car, one at a goods depot and one at the home
of a fascist.
3 Padova: Squadre Comuniste per il Contropotere
burn the car belonging to president of ITI Gramsci
and Communist Party Official.
3 Florence: Prima Linea destroy many computers at
4 Milan: Squadre Armate Operaie claim a heavy explo-
sion destroying an Alfa transporter and 35 cars, includ-
ing the car of one of the managers. The Red Brigades
wound one of the SIT Siemens managers with nine
4 Genoa: The Red Brigades lame a personnel officer
6 Varese: Molotovs set fire to Alfa Romeo showroom.
7 Trento: Sabotage of a helicopter used for finding ura-
8 Milan: Red Brigades destroy car belonging to trade
union and C.P. worthy at SIT Siemens.
10 Milan: Three pistol shots in the legs of Montedison
official, claimed by Prima Linea.
1 1 Milan: A director of Chemical Bank is wounded in
the legs by Prima Linea.
1 1 Bologna: Bomb against Alfa Romeo showroom.
12 Segnate: Formazione Comuniste Combattenti and
Prima Linea set fire to a depot of computer compo-
nents at the Honeywell multinational — two billion lire
13 Milan: Proletari Comuniste per ll Contropotere
bomb an electricity cable supplying Alfa Romeo.
13 Rho: Bomb at Alfa Romeo showroom.
1 4 Avellino: Bomb attack against firm supplying spare
parts to Alfa Romeo.
15 Bologna: Head of personnel dept, at Menarini
factories and the industrial hierarchy
wounded in various parts of the body. Claimed by
18 Marghera: Organizzazione Operaia per il Comu-
nismo and Proletari Comunisti Organizzati claim the
bombing of an Alfa Romeo showroom.
19 Trento: Pistol shots against Alfa Romeo showroom.
1 9 Turin: Attack against a FIAT showroom.
20 Milan: Four comrades break into an Alfa Romeo
showroom, immobilise the guard, and explode many
molotovs. Other attacks against Alfa showrooms in
Rome and Bassano Del Grappa.
22 Florence: Linea d’Azione Comuniste break into a
house-letting agency and take away documents.
25 Padova: Molotov thrown from a motorbike against
a regional bank branch.
30 Mestre: A bomb damages cars on display in FIAT
2 Varese: Electricity cable suppling Alfa Romeo is
cut. Action claimed by Proletari per il Contropotere.
3 Rome: Two attacks during the night: one destroys
the car of the president of ITI Fremi, the other dam-
ages Rizzoli publishing concern.
10 Bologna: Bomb in the night against Banca del
13 Carbonia: A molotov is thrown into ITI Anioy.
15 Saronno: Motori Breda director’s car destroyed by
fire by Squadre Combattenti Comuniste.
22 Pomigliano: Squadre Operaie lame an Alfa Romeo
23 Pomigliano: Sabotage in the paint department of
26 Florence: Squadre l'roletarie raid and set fire to
CEVA money lending agency.
27 Cassino: Squadra Armata Operaia bomb power
lines to the FIAT, blocking production.
28 Milan: Molotov against an Alfa Romeo dealer.
30 Orbassano: Nucleo Operai Comunisti set fire to a
depot of FIAT transporters.
30 Monza: Incendiary bomb against Alfa Romeo
3 Turin: Prima Linea break into the regional adminis-
tration finance offices and set fire to them.
8 Varese: Electricity supply line cut.
I 1 [location missing]: Four FIAT showrooms bombed:
Nuclei Operai Comunisti.
12 Milan: Proletari Comunisti per il Contropotere
bomb two FIAT showrooms.
18 Turin: Nuclei Operai Comunisti set fire to a boat-
train used for the transport of cars inside FIAT.
19 Grugliasco: A Prima Linea nucleus breaks into an
insurance office and wounds an official in the legs.
20 Milan: One year after the death of their militant
Romano Tognini who was killed during a weapons
expropriation, Prima Linea explode 8 kg. ofTNT at
factories andthe industrial hierarchy
the Commercialists’ Union.
22 Trento: Brigate Comuniste destroy a car belonging
to the Commercialists’ Union.
27Trento:The Ulrike Meinhof Brigade of Nuclei Co-
munisti Combattenti set fire to a wood depot owned
by the president of the Commercialists Union.
27 Taranto: Nuclei Combattenti Comunisti claim sab-
otage at Italsider where the control panel of a turnace
is set fire to, causing 2 billion lire’s worth of damage.
Fifteen days before, three workers died in the same
8 Rome: Ronde Comuniste di Contropotere blow up
the headquarters of three building societies respon-
sible for the desperate housing situation in the city.
28 Turin: Production manager in the paint depart-
ment of Lancia is killed by a Red Brigades column.
28 Milan: Azione Rivoluzionari blow up a tramline
and an ENEL (electricity) cable supplying the tram
network, to give an extra day’s holiday to the wage slaves
who get up each morning to go their places of exploitation.
29 Milan: Director of Alfa Romeo is taken by sur-
prise by a Red Brigades commando. They tie him to
the inside of his garage, photograph him, and fire four
shots into his legs.
23 Milan: Sabotage to the telephone lines caused by
corrosive acid cuts off more than 2,000 telephones in
the Rogoredo (residential) area.
25 Rome: An Opel car showroom is bombed.
26 Rowe: Explosions against a Volkswagen showroom
and an electricity cable.
27 Padova: Proletari Comunisti Organizzati claim
eight explosions: against the State housing depart-
ment, the SIP telephone exchange, headquarters of
Alleanza insurance company, the town hall, university
president’s home, the home of a SIP director, and the
one of a Christian Democrat vice deputy mayor. At
the same time 2,000 telephones are cut off.
28 Milan: Nuclei Armati Antisfratto cause an explo-
sion against the offices of RAS insurance, who own
dozens of flats.
/ Bergamo: Proletarie Combattenti per il Comunismo
claim explosions against two boutiques in the city.
14 Milan: an unexploded bomb is found in the car
park of the SIP.
1 6 Genoa: The Red Brigades burn cars belonging to
three Italsider and Ansaldo managers.
2 / Bologna: Double action against Visplant, producer
of insecticides already contested by local inhabit-
ants. Administrative offices are raided, while the elec-
tric cable supplying the factory is blown up. Action
claimed by UnitaTerritoriale Comuniste.
30 Bologna: Squadre Proletarie Combattenti explode
factories andthe industrial hierarchy
half a kilo ofTNT at IBM headquarters.
25 Milan: Tax collector’s office burned.
26 Bergamo: Violent clashes outside the Town Hall
which is then devastated and burned. This is the day
of the general strike called by the unions.
13 Milan: A group of comrades break into the offices
of the Medical Association. Employees and doctors
are tied up and various documents and gold coins
removed. Claimed by Volante Rossa. September
/ / Rome: Che Guevara Internationalist Brigade claim
three actions to commemorate the Chilean coup
d’etat: explosions at the Chilean Embassy; the Ameri-
can Library, and the Brazilian airline, Varig.
14 Ancona: Federation of Light Industry visited by the
Red Brigades. Five armed people tie up those present
and take away documents.
1 1 Florence: Students devastate the university office
responsible for the bad conditions in the refectory.
Four comrades are arrested after being singled out by
members of the communist party.
6 Milan: Prinra Linea raid the association for medical
insurance and take away money and fdes.
6 Rome: At midnight 10 incendiary bombs are thrown
into the car park of the Ministry for Home Affairs.
29 Rome: General manager of Poligrafico di Stato
(State printing agency) is shot in the legs.
18 Genoa: Explosive device found under car belong-
ing to the head gynecologist of San Martino hospital.
/ 9 Seveso: Three young people break into the health
inspector’s office. They search the premises, then
shoot the doctor in charge in the legs. He is accused,
even by the unions, of being too lenient in the case
concerning the industrial poisoning in the area.
19 Bologna: Employment exchange invaded by young
people who write slogans against sweat labour all
over the walls.
2 Turin: Prinra Linea try to paralyse the traffic of the
province with actions against a bus station and crucial
points of the urban network to stop people from go-
ing to work on an abolished public holiday.
6 Rome: Red Brigades burn registers and dossiers in
the school Duca d’Aosta.
24 Milan: An armed cell of Prima Linea shoot doc-
tor Roberto Anzalone as he is leaving his consulting
rooms. A leaflet explains that he is responsible, as pres-
ident of a doctors’ association and as secretary of the
medical association, for attacks against the workers.
13 Rome: Incendiary bomb almost destroys the Fac-
ulty of Architecture. Claimed by Studenti proletari
1 3 Trieste: About one hundred feminist comrades occu-
py the Regional Health Department in protest about
the way in which the abortion law is being applied.
20 Rome: Two kilos of explosive blow up the door of
the Town Hall.
2 / Rome: A “communist student group for the set-
tling of accounts” tries to wound the University rec-
tor by shooting him, but miss their target.
22 Turin: Feminist cell Squadre di Donne Comuniste
set fire to and destroy the car of a gynecologist who
refuses to do abortions.
27 Montano: Squadre Armate Proletarie break into
the Town Hall. They immobilise the employees, ex-
propriate 300,000 lire, and explode a molotov on the
7 Rimini: A group of “young organised proletarians”
throw two molotovs against a Franciscan monastery.
1 Turin: A group of communist students sets fire to the
entrance to the school Volta.
27 Venice: Housing Department offices bombed along
with four other State institutes in the town. Proletari
27 Rovigo: Pistol shots and molotovs against the home
of the head of the municipal transport company, and
the director of the local housing department.
5 Rome: Two women throw molotovs against an ob-
1 4 Florence: Many bombings during the night — against
the finance offices, the housing department, the town
planning office, Director of Studies, and other similar
attacks in Pisa and Prato. Claimed in telephone call
by Squadre Proletarie di Combattimento.
26 Bergamo: Nucleo Armato Proletario per il Comu-
nismo claim bomb of Housing Department.
23 Bologna: A group of comrades break into the
Chamber of Commerce, the office of the rector of
the University, and the headquarters of the RAI (Ra-
dio/ television company) as part of the campaign con-
cerning the trial for the events of March.
29 Rome: Bomb explodes at Medical Association
7 Venice: Nuclei Armati Comunisti raid and set fire to
the study of the University administrative director.
Milan: The gates of the municipal tram depot are
blown up as part of the struggle against fare increases
of the previous month.
3 Turin: Incendiary attack against the headquarters
of the Geographical Institute (an army office which
4 Turin: Bomb attack at the home of Manni, lawyer
and president of the Law Society. Claimed by Red
Brigades three days before the opening of the trial of
their historic nucleus (Curcio, Franceschini, etc.)
8 Bologna: An Armed Feminist Nucleus place a bomb
at a registrar’s office.
13 Rome: Lotta Armata per il Potere Proletaria cause
an explosion at the headquarters of the medical as-
sociation, resulting in damage worth millions of lire.
17 Florence: Four comrades raid the offices of the
housing department, claimed by Azione Proletaria.
Two molotovs are thrown against the court buildings.
10 Turin: Squadre Proletarie di Combattimento break
into the consulting rooms of a gynaecologist accused
by the feminist movement of being responsible for
the death of one of his patients, chain him to the
radiator, and shoot him in the legs.
19 Florence: Commercial Union headquarters broken
into by Prima Linea who set fire to the premises.
25 Trento: Volante Rossa set fire to the car belonging
to head gynaecologist of the Santa Chiara hospital.
8 Milan: The medical director of INAM (medical in-
surance association) is shot in the legs by Proletari
Armati per il Comunismo.
19 Pavia: Bomb against the Town Hall.
19 Bologna: School bombed.
23 Rome: Ronde Comuniste per il Contropotere Ter-
ritoriale bomb the Italian cultural centre.
17 Trento: Attack against the Director of Education
with a bomb made from a camping gas container.
1 Rome: Police clear part of a hospital occupied by a
group of comrades who carried out legal abortions
that were impossible in all the other Roman hospitals
because of the Barons. [In Italy each hospital depart-
ment is under the direction of a university professor
in that field. This has given rise to an almost feudal
situation, hence the term baroni.]
2 Bologna: Robin Hood Nucleus for Ecological Ac-
tion free the birds imprisoned in the cages of the park
3 Imperia: President of the Medical Association’s study
is set fire to.
9 Padova: Proletari Comunisti claim a bomb against
the Faculty of Political Science, closed by the presi-
dent in reply to the struggle against selection.
9 Pisa: Talpe Rosse Organizzate (organised red moles)
claim an attack against the State organism responsible
for students’ residence and dining halls.
/ 8 Rome: A notorious fascist belonging to the infamous
Di Luia gang and boss of the heroin trade, is killed with
three pistol shots. The action is claimed in a telephone
call to Lotta Continua by Movimento Proletaria di
Resistenza Offensivo Nucleo Antieroina. [Anti-heroin
Nucleus of the Movement of Proletarian Resistance]
1 Milan: Proletari Armati claim the killing of Giamp-
iero Grandi, a shopkeeper belonging to an organisa-
tion that controls heroin traffic and the exploitation
of prostitutes. Bomb at Mental Hygiene Centre in via
Pancrazi, and a bar in via Degli Apuli.
6 Milan: Bomb in a bar in via Arsia, centre of heroin
traffic in that area.
27 Rome: Guerriglia Comnunista ambush two
heroin pushers; one is killed, the other wounded.
WE CLAIM the execution of the heroin pusher and ma-
fioso, Grandi Giampiero, and the bombings at the Centre
for Mental Hygiene in via Pancrazi, the pushers’ lair of via
Degli Apuli on 1.1 1.78, and the bar in via Arsia, centre of
the heroin traffic in the Quarto Oggiaro area, on 6.11.78.
Communists are not generally against ‘drug addicts ’ like the
bourgeoisie and the forces of repression: they are against those
who speculate on their skins. We know that heroin is an
answer, although illusory and disgusting, to a real need for
change in the quality of life. Heroin is the most beautiful of
the false consumer products that capital has invented to mys-
tify the reality of proletarian needs. To struggle against heroin
pushers is for every heroin addict to struggle against those who
seem to be giving him the only possibility oj life and survival.
It wouldn’t be habit-forming if daily life weren’t
shit. State and God, Work and Family, are deviating
ideologies that serve to uphold and hide an unnatural,
lousy, criminal social order which denies in all its re-
lationships the legitimacy of the natural needs of man,
and upsets his relationship with reality. Destruction
of nature (Seveso is only a tiny example of capitalist
criminality), destruction of man as a natural being.
What capital cannot exploit it destroys.
With the circulation of heroin and psychotropic
drugs they are planning the destruction of entire gener-
ations.They destroy as the only way to evaluate the de-
sire to live, to be well, to express the creativity which the
young proletarians are the carriers of, in terms of profit.
Instead of the forced suicides of the Chilean type, cap-
ital is launching voluntary suicide on the market for
Heroin in itself is a false problem: it is a consumer
product invented to suffocate the real need to change
the quality of life, the real problem is the existence
of the capitalist social organisation, because it bends
towards death and the destruction of all that is hu-
man. The drug addict becomes known and measured
for the quantity of heroin he consumes, for the aver-
age number of thefts he commits, and not for being
a human being who, like others, is trying to affirm
his own right to existence. To speak of heroin gra-
tuitously is useless if one doesn't begin to organise
the proletarian strength to destroy the present state
of affairs at the same time. The proletarian revolu-
tion, the surpassing of the existing social order, is
not a project to be defined in abstract, but begins
in practice with the destruction of capitalist society.
All those who support the liberalisation of the
heroin market without posing the problem of
how to change the reality of proletarian life in
the capitalist metropoli, are stupid opportunists.
The armed strength of the proletariat must aim to
impose itself as a concrete element capable of self-
determining social reality in its complexity.
Build proletarian unity in the struggle, establish
and develop the political legitimacy of the revolu-
tionaries among the proletariat, extend the space
for building the real power of the proletariat armed.
The armed strength of the proletariat in struggle is
the only practical instrument of liberation from capi-
Heroin pushing, the exploitation of prostitution,
the fencing of small thefts, are activities which cor-
respond only to the law of capitalist accumulation.
Communists are not against illegal activity that dam-
ages the bourgeois strata: they are against all those
vile activities of proletarian exploitation. It is right to
rob banks, to ransom the bourgeois strata, but enough
opportunism! Whoever gets rich through the injury
of other proletarians will be considered a vile traitor!
Vile is the pusher who earns his living through
the deaths of others. Vile is the pimp who uses wom-
en’s bodies as an instrument for his own profit. Vile
is the fence who exploits the sweat labour of young
proletarians when they are constrained to steal a ste-
reo or spare tyres. All those, especially at a big lev-
el, are friends of the police and the carabinieri and
enemies of the proletariat. They buy the freedom to
continue their vile activities in exchange for tip-offs
and prison for other proletarians. The carabinieri use
them as informers and they use the carabinieri to get
rid of those who are in their way. So the operations
of the drug squad against the pushers are in the end
nothing other than operations controlling the mar-
ket to the benefit of those who really centralise the
Whoever breaks proletarian unity, exploits, and
robs from the proletariat themselves, must be con-
sidered vile enemy and traitor: no solidarity in their
divisions for subversive work among all the proletar-
ians, for the destruction of capitalist society.
Expel the enemies of the proletariat, the spies and
traitors, whether they be heroin pushers or trade union
bosses, to build the unity of the proletariat in struggle.
Heroin is an instrument of social control that suits
power. Alongside the pushers, and the forces of repres-
sion there exists another hierarchy of control over the
proletariat: the medico-psychiatric one. The sanitary
decentralisation, the opening of centres for hygiene
and mental health in every area, are the new instru-
ments which capital is using to keep the contradictions
of the capitalist metropolis under control, to render
stupid and to drug the forces of the proletarian revolu-
tion. Whoever goes beyond the rule of State, ofWork,
of Family, is “mad,” can be labelled as deviant from
childhood. As such, capital assigns his ghetto; will give
him more heroin free, will stuff him with psychotropic
drugs from the beginning, so that he doesn’t disturb
the regular functioning of the social order.
Doctors and psychiatrists who administer such
rubbish, especially to young people and women, are
mad criminals, labelling antagonism and proletarian re-
bellion as “social deviance.” Neurotic and psychopathic
subjects only because they cannot support the disgust
of capitalist society. What does a psychiatrist who has
been able to study without lifting a finger until he gets
his degree know of proletarian life in the ghettos?
What we are fighting for is the fundamental right
to self-determination of the proletariat. It must be
the proletariat themselves to decide how, where and
why they want to live. The psychiatrists, the crimi-
nologists, the priests, the trade union bosses, in their
positions as social controllers of the proletariat are
enemies, and as such should be struck down.
Attack the forces of repression, carabinieri, and
police. Expel and strike their friends, the traitors, the
informers, the spies, from the factories, from the pro-
Attack the hierarchy of medico-psychiatric con-
Break up the internal hierarchy of control with-
in the proletariat, the pushers and the shit fences.
Build the power of the armed proletariat.
Attacks Against the Police
9 Rome: NAP claim an action injuring sergeant of
the anti-terrorist brigade responsible for the killing
of Anna Maria Mantini.
2 Genoa, Naples, Milan, Rlw, Pisa, Florence: The NAP
and the Red Brigades combined claim six bomb at-
tacks against carabinieri barracks during the night,
attacks against the police
1 6 Bologna: Two bomb attacks against carabinieri bar-
10 Genoa: The Red Brigades set fire to a car used by
a carabinieri captain.
/ Biella: Police chief shot dead by the Red Brigades.
9 Turin: Molotovs and machine gun fire against cara-
binieri barracks Nazcleo armato comunista.
25 Bologna: A Fiat 500 explodes outside a carabinieri
command post. Nucleo armato Bruno Valli.
6 Rome: A NAP commando tries to kill head of the
Italian SDS (secret services), Alfonso Noce, who was
also responsible for coordinating the police action re-
sulting in the killing of comrade Anna Maria Mantini.
Anna Maria, NAP militant, was shot dead by police
on opening the door of her flat.
15 Milan: At 5.30 am three members of the SDS
break into the apartment of Walter Alesia, aged 20,
suspected of belonging to the Red Brigades. Alesia
tries to escape, and in the shootout that follows, a
police superintendent and a sergeant are killed. Alesia
is wounded, then shot at point blank range.
2 / : Two comrades are signaled to stop by a road patrol.
One makes a run for it, and returning fire, kills one
policeman and wounds another.
2 Florence: An explosive device is thrown against the
12 Turin: Sergeant of the political police killed by a
commando of Brigate Combattente.
/ 9 Bari, Lucca: Carabinieri barracks attacked by bombs
in both towns.
22 Rome: Maria PiaVianale of the NAP is recognised
by a policeman on a bus. He is shot while trying to
capture her and her companion. In the chase that fol-
lows, an armed park attendant who wanted to be a
hero was mistaken by police for another NAP mem-
ber and shot dead.
l Turin, Milan, Florence: Bombs against carabinieri bar-
racks in these cities, claimed by Prima Linea.
14 Perugia: Unita Comuniste Combattenti claim an
explosion against the police haedquarters of the town.
30 Florence: Powerful explosion at PS barracks. Prima
30 Genoa: A pressure cooker containing TNT is left
in front of the car park for carabinieri squad cars, but
15 Genoa: Incendiary bottles against police office.
19 Cantu: Carabinieri barracks bombed.
attacks againstthe police
30 Catania: Pistol shots against the carabinieri bar-
racks, claimed by the NAP.
30 Bologna: Bomb explodes at entrance to police office.
6 Leghorn: Bomb at the carabinieri barracks in rela-
tion to the execution of comrade Franco Lo Muscio
in Rome. Gruppo Combattend Comunisti.
8 Rome: Combattend Comunisti claim an attempt to
kill a policeman newly acquitted of killing comrade
Mario Salvi.This attempt was in a restaurant where he
was celebrating the outcome of his trial. The comrades
missed their target, killing one of his guests instead.
18 Naples: A bomb explodes in front of the police
station of Monte Calvario. Four comrades of Prima
Linea are arrested shortly afterwards, accused of pre-
paring a similar attack.
20 Turin: Red Brigades attack barracks with guns and
explode bomb at gates.
21 Turin: Similar to the previous night, Prima Linea
bomb another carabinieri barracks.
3 1 Nnoro: Police vice-superintendent and an inspec-
tor are attacked when leaving the prison after giving
their New Year greetings to the warders. The com-
rades of a Nuclei Armati Combattend per il Comu-
nismo cell greet them on behalf of the prisoners with
a shower of bullets.
3 Padova: Three carabinieri barracks bombed during
the night by Organizzazione Operaia per il Comu-
nismo in protest against heavy sentences meted out
to two comrades.
8 Nuoro: Car of flying squad inspector set alight.
18 Novara: A cell of the Formazione Combattenti
Comuniste shoot at carabinieri on guard duty near a
26 Milan: Nuclei Armati Comunisti claim an explo-
sion destroying half the facade of the police barracks.
29 Rome: Bomb against carabinieri barracks.
Nuoro: Incendiary bomb against CC barracks at Ol-
1 7 Florence: Two cars belonging to the judicial police
burnt. Squadre Proletari di Combattimento.
24 Rome: Lotta Armata per il Comunismo destroy a
bus belonging to the carabinieri and a police car.
25 Milan: Squadre Operaie Armate destroy a police
car and two motorcycles.
10 Turin: Red Brigade kill anti-terrorism inspector
involved in arrests of many BR and NAP comrades.
10 Milan: A bomb explodes in the courtyard of a police
station, destroying a van and damaging other vehicles.
10 Florence: Main door of the City Police station
attacks against the police
13 Rome: Carabinieri barracks bombed during the
13 Nuoro: A rudimentary bomb explodes against CC
15 Florence: Squadre Proletarie di Combattimento ex-
plode a bomb outside police station.
19 Milan: A policeman is surrounded and disarmed
during a demonstration.
7 Bologna: A Nucleo Comunista Armato attack a po-
lice command post, taking away a pistol and other
7 Rome: TNT against carabinieri barracks. Police ser-
geant’s car burned. Red Brigades.
10 Salerno: Bomb explodes in front of carabinieri bar-
12 Taranto: Explosion at carabinieri barracks. Claimed
by a Gruppo Combattente.
1 4 Padova: Cars of two prosecution witnesses in the
trial of the ‘autonomists’, and the car of DIGOS chief,
are burned by Comunisti Organizzati and Organiz-
zazione Operaia per ll Comunismo.
17 Trieste: Molotovs against the police headquarters,
claimed by Nuclei Proletari Organizzati.
19 Rome: The Red Brigades attack carabinieri bar-
racks with hand grenades and machine guns. The
barracks lodge the infamous General Dalla Chiesa,
responsible for the superprisons and the blitz opera-
tions against comrades all over Italy.
2 7 Ostia: Police sergeant’s car burned.
24 Venice: In a phone call to press agency ANSA, the
killing of a carabinieri officer and a friend of his in an
explosion is claimed by comrades.
29 Bologna: Squadre Armate Proletarie carry out an
attack against police office.
1 Rome .Today an armed proletarian formation has attacked
the carabinieri barracks. This is undoubtedly the best way to
celebrate this 1st of May struggle. Create, organise armed
counter-power. Freedom for all communist prisoners.
1 Caporizzuto Island: Explosion under the window ot
local carabinieri barracks.
2 Turin: New carabinieri barracks under construction
is blown up.
3 Turin: Two patrolling carabinieri order a car to stop.
Two young men get out, immobilise and handcuff
the two disconcerted police and relieve them ot their
4 Milan: Squadre Armate Proletarie disarm two po-
licemen and set fire to the squad car.
7 7 Turin: Pistol shots and explosion at carabinieri bar-
75 Rome: Headquarters of city police bombed by
Formazioni Proletari Armate.
22 Milan: During the afternoon five security guards are
attacks against the police
disarmed in front of the banks where they are on duty.
23 Rome: Incendiary attack against the firm Carahelli
which produces equipment for the carabinieri.
24 Cagliari: Prison warder’s car destroyed by flames.
27 Milan: Incendiary bomb in city police car park
claimed by Guardie Proletarie Territoriali.
27 Rome: Police officer’s car burned.
28 Quartu S. Elena: Three cars belonging to German
soldiers at local army base burned.
2 Rome: Car belonging to PS inspector on duty at the
Ministry for Home Affairs is firebombed.
3 Bergamo: Squadre Armate Operaia attack police sta-
tion, immobilise and disarm those present and destroy
premises by fire.
3 Rome: Azione Rivoluzionaria claim attack against
9 Bologna: A Gruppo Comunista del Movimento
claim an explosion at the offices of private police La
15 Saronno: Explosive charge damages local carabin-
21 Uzulei: Pistol shots against home of local carabin-
ieri captain, is brought to justice with twelve pistol
shots while in a bus on his way to ‘work’.
21 Turin: Red Brigades attack police station with mo-
lotovs and pistol shots.
22 Laveno: Gruppo Contropotere Territoriale destroy
seven boats including a motorlaunch belonging to
26 Milan: Two pistol shots miss a private policeman
on duty outside a bank.
27 Avellino: Bomb explodes outside army barracks.
28 Florence: Reparti Comunisti Combattenti break
into a police station, handcuff the two policemen
present and take away money and pistols.
/ Rome: Dynamite attack at police headquarters.
10 Caglari: A German army officer based at Decimo-
mannu finds his car burnt.
12 Padova: Organizzazione Operaia per il Comu-
nismo and Proletari Armati per il Comunismo claim
the bomb attacks during the night against carabinieri
and police barracks, also against the prison and prison
15 Rome: Prima Linea assail a police station, chain up
and disarm the policemen present.
26 Milan: Squadre Armate give police an early morn-
ing call with a bomb.
27 Monza: TNT attack at carabinieri barracks under
28 Bologna: Attack against police headquarters
claimed by Squadro Armate Proleltarie.
2 Bologna: Three comrades of Squadre Armate Pro-
letarie break into a police station and disarm three
attacks against the police
9 Bergamo: Squadre Operaia Armate and Proletari Ar-
mati per il Comunismo together claim attacks against
three carabinieri barracks in the city.
7 Turin: Burning of a car belonging to a carabinieri
26 Saronno: Bomb explodes in front of carabinieri
26 Venice: Attack against a police station.
29 Varese: Squadre Armate Combattente Comuniste
claim an attack on carabinieri barracks.
4 Bologna: Pistol shots and nrolotovs against a police
22 Milan: Proletari Arnrati per il Comunismo claim
powerful explosion at a police station.
24 Rome: A Red Brigades column ambush a police
patrol, throw molotovs at the car, and wound a po-
liceman with machine gun fire.
29 Rome: Dynamite attack against a carabinieri bar-
31 Padova: Three cars burned belonging to head of
the police flying squad and two other officers.
2 Turin: Squadre Armate Proletarie ambush a flying
squad and try to lure them into a trap wired up with
an incendiary device. One of the officers notices the
mesh and manages to avert the explosion.
3 Oristano: Three Barbagia Rossa comrades break into
an army barracks, disarm the guards, and take away
four Garand guns, ammunition, and a hand grenade.
3 Genoa: Red Brigades set fire to cars belonging to
two prison warders well known for their beatings,
and that of a carabinieri sergeant.
5 Rome: Red Brigades claim fire that destroyed car of
19 Oristano: The central radio of USAFE, an Ameri-
can military corporation, is assailed and devastated
following protests by local inhabitants concerning its
22 Rome: Two Red Brigades comrades surprise and
disarm a policeman, then handcuff hint to the railings
of his house.
25 Nuoro: Dynamite charge destroys carabinieri car.
1) Vigili Urbani (City Police), Guardia di Finanza
(Customs Officers), Guardia Forestale (Forest Warders):
Apart from the city police, who have been used in the
service of public order since the first struggles of the
Movement in 1977 (in Rome city police armed with
machine guns fired into a demonstration), it was with
the Moro kidnapping that this body increasingly took
on the characteristics of special police. The customs
officers were present at road blocks during the whole
Moro operation, and in three Italian centres (Milan,
Rome, Ancona) as many anti-guerrilla centres were
instituted directly by the Customs. The Forestry on
the other hand have been seen in the city squares
since the Moro case, and have been put in charge
of protecting NATO installations. The Minister Mar-
cora has an armed escort of a dozen forestry warders
trained at Castro Pretoria.
2) Guardie Giurate (private police): These are the true
watchdogs of the bourgeoisie. They have increased
rapidly in recent times, they often associate in ‘service’
cooperative for banks and commercial activities, but
it seems that their way of enjoying themselves is by
giving chase to comrades doing flyposting or shoot-
ing into demonstrations. In total, according to the lat-
est census, there were 21,675 who work in five hun-
dred twenty vigilance institutes; 3,042 who belong to
proprietors’ associations, 56,359 employed by facto-
ries or public bodies, and to this should also be added
1 ,385 private investigators. In total this amounts to a
true army, with 82,000 armed people, as big as the PS
itself (source: Quale Difesa, No 4, year 1977).
3) Carabinieri (CC) and Publica Sicurezza (PS):The
carabinieri have always been the special body in the
service of capital. Through Dalla Chiesa, they are in
practice dependant on the President of the Council
of State, Andreotti. One of their main tasks, apart from
carrying out actions characteristic of the secret ser-
vices, is that of directly surveying the special prisons.
There is a project to enroll another six thousand
over the next three years.
At present the carabinieri can count on about
90,000 men spread over the national territory, with
three divisions, each by geographical area, nine bri-
gades detached in the major cities, and 24 legions in
the most important provinces, and capillary control is
accomplished by over 5,000 CC stations, even in the
most isolated town.
Armed Struggle — Some Reflections
In order to dispel any ambiguity that might arise, I
should like to make it clear that when I speak of
armed struggle I am not speaking of artificial divi-
sions imposed by bourgeois laws where the throw-
ing of dozens of molotov cocktails runs the risk of
not being considered a situation of armed struggle by
It is not the technical instrument we use which
qualifies an action as violent or not, but rather its
perspective in the confrontation with the class enemy.
To employ armed struggle means essentially to be
ready to respond to State violence and exploitation
blow for blow at every level. It means passing from
the purely defensive phase to one of attack in or-
der to strike the enemy’s centres of organisation and
repression. At the same time it must be capable of
indicating to all the exploited where the true enemy
is concealed, and that it is possible to strike it, it is
not indistinguishable nor invulnerable. The latter is
all the more important in an advanced phase of social
democracy. Here the State is trying to draw the pro-
letariat into its own logic to have them identify with
the adversary through the mechanism of consensus
and the co-management of exploitation, and at the
same time use terror by exhibiting a strong appara-
tus of criminalisation and repression. This situation
can be seen today not only in the German Federal
Republic, but also in Italy and all the other areas of
Different methods and choices can obviously ex-
ist within the revolutionary struggle, not all of which
can be shared from an anarchist viewpoint, but I shall
speak of this later.
I also hope to avoid the ambiguity of certain
positions which, after maintaining that they do not
object to taking up the question of armed strug-
gle in itself, confuse the issue with such statements
as: “the present situation (...) does not impose the
need for clandestine armed struggle which inevita-
bly ends up demanding all the energies of the mili-
tants involved.” (Rivista Anarchica, March, 1977, p. 12)
Above all I should like to point out once again how
the whole question becomes abstract through such
reasoning. Armed struggle comes to be seen as some-
thing cut off from the rest of revolutionary activity, as
a separate, purely “technical” and military phase which
would steal time and energy from... one doesn’t know
the rest. Besides, it seems to me that such arguments
distort the problem by qualifying armed struggle with
the adjective “clandestine” in a way that seems inevi-
table, negative and degenerating. Given the fact that
armed struggle is always in itself illegal, it does not
seem to me that clandestinity can be made to coin-
cide exclusively with one’s own choice, but rather that
it is an eventuality to be borne in mind and does not
fatally imply the creation of a vanguard/mass relation-
ship of the Leninist kind. On the other hand, to come
back to the present situation who can say that the
comrades who carry out a certain type of action (for
example the ambush in Pisa on the doctor responsi-
ble for the assassination of comrade Serantini), which
can certainly be defined as clandestine, are themselves
“clandestine” and on the contrary are not carrying out
a normal open practice of militancy?
There seems to be reasonable agreement among the
great majority of comrades concerning some funda-
mental problems: that violence is not the spontaneous
expression of our own free will, but it is the scientifi-
cally organised violence of oppression and exploita-
tion implemented by the State which constrains us
as revolutionaries to reply with an opposing, libera-
tory violence if we do not want to bow down to the
beating of our employers. Ours is always therefore a
defensive violence, which does not mean that it limits
itself to warding off the enemy’s blows.
If what I have just said is true, it seems clear to me
that in reality the problem of when armed response
is justifiable or inevitable does not exist. We would
be short-sighted or opportunistic if we could not
see beyond the more or less democratic and permis-
sive veneer with which power covers its homicidal
essence. Whatever form it takes, the exploitation of
man by man always merits a reply in the perspective
of its violent destruction. It is not a question of decid-
ing who “fired first” in order to know whether our
defence is “legitimate” or not: for centuries the State
has “fired first”, and our deaths do not only come
about in the streets under the bullets of the police,
but also in the factories, the prisons, asylums, ghet-
tos, shanty towns, the clandestine abortion clinics, and
the mines all over the world. If it were a question of a
moral problem there would not be the need for even
a minute’s discussion in the face of the hundreds of
comrades, of exploited, assassinated daily and whose
blood cries vengeance to our conscience.
But the problem is not only a moral one. Our
rage, our revolutionary will, must always be accom-
panied by lucid reasoning which allows us to conduct
the struggle in the most consistent and effective way
possible. This is not to say that offering oneself to be
slaughtered on the alter of the martyr renders service
to the revolutionary cause. The revolutionary act, we
all know, is a collective act that presupposes a high lev-
el of generalisation in the consciousness and the will
for radical change in social relationships in a commu-
nist direction. And it is here that most criticisms raised
by comrades against the practice of armed struggle
are aimed today. They say: we are not living in a pre-
insurrectional situation; the masses are controlled by
the reformists and certain actions are not understood.
To this objection one could reply that the revo-
lutionary movement should not always limit itself
to carrying out the “popular will” which often risks
transforming itself into something intangible or of
disputable interpretation. Alongside the “cultural”
work of propaganda and the diffusion of the revolu-
r ionary perspective, the anti-State movement should
also know how to put their affirmations into practice,
especially in a situation where the ideological hege-
mony of the reformist forces has lulled the conscious-
ness and will of popular struggle or where they have
been suffocated by State repression. Ideological dis-
sertations and theoretical propaganda are not enough
to shift the power relations that really exist. They must
express themselves in actions where increasingly wid-
er strata in the class of oppressed can recognise their
own real needs.
This perspective might, at the limit, be identi-
fied with the so-called exemplary deed which cer-
tainly requires careful reflection on the relationship
between active minority and social situation, and on
the choice of objective. But this, it seems to me, can-
not be reduced to referring to a “glorious” historical
past that we want to contribute to.
In the face of the present situation, the argument
of the exemplary deed seems to me to be limiting
and inadequate. It seems to me that we find ourselves
before something qualitatively different. Today certain
actions are carried out by more or less specialised and
appropriately organised minorities, but they are the
expression of a movement which cannot be simply
discarded as minoritarian on the basis of mere math-
ematical calculation. In saying this we are not only
referring to situations such as those in Bologna and
Rome on March 1 1 and 12, where actions of armed
certain “clandestine” actions operated and claimed by
organisations which have made a declared choice of
armed struggle, such as the Red Brigades, the NAP or
the myriad of new names which appear day after day.
The anti-institutional movement and violence
In the present situation it is no longer possible to say
that actions such as armed clashes with the police, at-
tacks on the centres of exploitation or the physical
persons of some of the better known persecutors ot
revolutionary militants, are only the will and fruit of
the painstaking efforts of a handful ot theoreticians, the
professionals of clandestinity, separate from the mass.
Today, when the Montedison electronics factory,
or the Luisa Spagnoli shops, or the doctor who ap-
proved the assassination of Serantini are struck, this
only adds to the demands and levels of conscious-
ness of a movement which is something more than a
simple conglomeration of groups, collectives, or tiny
parties. It is a movement which includes large sec-
tors of those who have been pushed to the margins
of society, “non-guaranteed” students, women, those
in insecure jobs, and less numerous but no less im-
portant, sectors of industrial workers, service workers
and technicians, etc. A movement which has singled
out, perhaps instinctively, perhaps not clear in its
complexity, but certainly with precision, the enemy
present not only in the repressive apparatus of the
State and the governors most in evidence, but also in
the new reformist bosses of the trades unions.
The line of refusal and opposition to capitalism and
the reformist lie is becoming concrete through certain
actions that are the patrimony of the movement. This is
emerging from struggles that, although not carried out
by the majority, certainly belong to the mass,
Accustomed for years to having to count on a
practice of impotence in a movement which has
been trying to go beyond the level of “opinion”; ac-
customed to dealing with problems typical of a con-
scious minority more or less isolated from the real
movement, many of us find ourselves uncomfortable
in this situation. This explains the obvious difficulty
in centering on real problems and the tendency to
get lost in quite marginal research which has already
been surpassed by the real level of the struggle.
For example, the difficulty which appears through
the repetition of the obvious but useless ideological
“distinction” based on the classic argument: the Red
Brigades are Marxist-Leninist and we are anarchists,
therefore there exist insurmountable differences be-
tween us. This question could even get to the heart of
the problem if it were not closed within the abstract
contestation of the two tendencies seen as being static
and dogmatic, instead of analysing the concrete prob-
lem of translating these theoretical choices into practice.
And here we could consider the problem of how
the Marxist-Leninist conception (but perhaps more
Castroist than Leninist) of the armed party translates
itself into a practice of professionals of clandestin-
ity chosen in advance, which is the major criticism I
should make of the Red Brigades.
The decision that certain comrades should con-
stitute the armed wing of the class recreates a situa-
tion of separation which can become the main cause
of errors in evaluation made by those comrades who,
closed within the logic of the specialized minority,
often find it hard to relate their own actions to the
political level and the needs of the movement. It is
one thing for a workers’ nucleus to decide upon the
punishment of a foreman, a fascist or the sabotage of a
plant, and entrust the execution of this to a restricted
number of comrades (for obvious reasons of security,
efficiency, etc.). It is another, completely different, for
a restricted number of comrades absent from the situ-
ation and with little or no links with it, to decide to
carry out the same action.
Besides, within the logic of the latter, such armed
groups are not formed on the basis of a natural pro-
cess of “distillation” where the more politically ma-
ture and those with a greater capacity for types of
actions become involved in the more advanced strug-
gles. Instead this comes to be based on quite personal
idealistic choice, a method that does not seem to me
to be right, even within a vanguardist logic, which,
moreover, I do not share.
The right road is not therefore, in my opinion,
the armed party of military specialists, but should be
instead that of widening the area of revolutionary
struggle against the State. This is so, not because it has
been decided by a handful of intellectuals, but because
the anti-institutional movement that has developed
cannot withdraw or procrastinate on positions already
conquered to wait for better times, but must try to go
ahead. Experience shows that the fascistic social dem-
ocratic State is not disposed to concede the minimum
of space that is not snatched from it by force.
Why the movement is going forward
At this point the problem to be faced is not so much
that of rendering the actions of armed struggle “com-
prehensible” to the movement so much as that of the
relationship between the revolutionary movement
which is beginning to emerge all over the country
(and which precisely because it is revolutionary con-
tains contradictions that need to be faced without
obstruction), and the rest of the proletarian move-
ment where the reformists still manage to exercise
their own hegemony. It is mainly a question of the
workers who have been guaranteed relative well be-
ing from the struggles of ’68, etc., paid for by their
integration into the logic of work, exploitation and
the State, and who are passing through a critical time.
The capitalist crisis at world level has on the one
hand eliminated the system’s margins of recuperation,
preventing the unions from being able to play the
role of containing and reabsorbing struggles as they
were called to do in ’68/’69.At that time revolution-
ary tendencies manifested themselves in a period that
was still one of expansion, where capital still had areas
in which to negotiate. Today the system has very little
to concede to wage earners in exchange for their im-
plication in the process of fascisization of society.
Cracks have opened in the reformist-controlled
worker’s movement. A certain disorientation has
spread, a generalized discontent, hut which is find-
ing it hard to transform itself into the will for social
change, or to identify the enemy clearly. A precarious
equilibrium has been established between workers
and their managers, which an attempt must be made
to shatter. We know that the marginalised and the
“guaranteed” have in reality a common enemy, but the
latter lack an awareness of whom those enemies are.
The movement must go forward to shatter the
reformist equilibrium. It must demonstrate with its
struggles that there exists a pole of anti-capitalist and
anti-State aggregation, which can become a point of
reference even for those who are guaranteed-nothing
Towards the Generalisation of
The general conditions of life in this country are par-
ticularly desperate. A tightly knit campaign of collabo-
ration with the governmental forces is allowing the
media to continue to present a tolerable picture. Any
sign of insufferance in the mass is immediately cir-
cumscribed with the greatest attention. The refusal of
toward the generalisation...
workers in Turin to strike in answer to the killing of
a journalist unleashed a sea of interpretations and in-
quests. Famous sociologists met to provide the analyses
that the State in its most brutally coercive forms (po-
lice, judiciary, prisons) needs. At the same time they
are fabricating such palliatives as the law on unem-
ployment, the rent laws, the tax reforms — all ludicrous
attempts to stop an avalanche with a piece of paper.
Unemployment is on the increase, private invest-
ment is diminishing (the capitalists prefer to put their
money safely abroad), the work situation must be rem-
edied with the least damage to the State, by having re-
course to the public deficit. This upsets our situation at
the level of international economic credibility, which
we are obliged to substitute with political credibility.
In other words, if we want German and American
money we must show them our disposition to repress
any form of revolutionary dissent that might develop
in our country. We must demonstrate that these forms
will no longer exist once things have been organised
definitively, with the farthings of the imperialist giants
and the consent of the Communist Party.
This party’s reactionary guarantee is necessary for
various reasons. First of all, its ideological past, the
capacity to confuse the exploited, the progressive ve-
neer, are none other than a simple attempt at a “calm”
passage to a social democratic capitalism with wide
This guarantee would have been impossible in
a different international perspective, with the USSR
in more real contrast with the interests of the Unit-
ed States. An Italian or European road to socialism
is absurd. The Italian Communist Party are available
for discussion with all the reactionary forces only be-
cause the USSR have been so disposed for some time.
All this should help us to understand how the
identification of the class front can no longer pass
through ideological factors, but must come about
through the productive situation. The workers are
open to attacking the forces of exploitation at the
place of exploitation as soon as the ideological cover-
ings which have been a barrier to their understand-
ing for so long have broken down. This disposition
becomes even clearer and more acute in a situation
accentuated by lack of work. In the last analysis the
unemployed workers are even more exploited and
miserable than the employed workers.
The disposition to struggle among the exploited
is not only proportionate to exploitation, but also
to the effectiveness of ideological instruments. The
more these seem clear and transparent, the more they
become great crusades against nothing, and exploi-
tation remains intact. The weaker they are, the less
capable they are of “guiding” the masses, who find
the road of the struggle, of class cohesion and the
objectives of the conflict themselves,
toward the generalisation...
The level of conflict
This can be defined as the whole of the conditions
that characterise the class conflict. To know these
conditions is very important, because one is often
carried, for different reasons, to consider some more
important than others, with the obvious conclusion
that those who do not accept the same ones come to
be defined counter-revolutionary.
It is not possible to fix a scale of merit concerning
the conditions that determine the level of the strug-
gle. It would in fact be out of place to overestimate
economic conditions, underestimating, for example,
ideological conditions which, precisely because they
are breaking down, produce certain consequences
and not others.
Heightening the level of conflict
Every historical moment has its own level of conflict.
In a certain sense, history is history in that it manages
to trace these levels and give accounts of the condi-
tions which caused them.
Changes in the level of conflict are normal events
which often come in “waves” which move around an
axis which seems to remain stable even during con-
tinual change. This something is the ideological struc-
ture of power or, if we prefer, ideological structure
itself, in that revolution does not have an ideological
structure until it takes the concrete form of counter-
To move the conflict to the fictitious level of ide-
ology often means to lose the concrete ground of the
struggle, the only ground on which any theoretical
consideration is valid.
There being no doubt that revolutionaries have
every interest in raising the level of consciousness,
it remains equally beyond doubt that there can be
no interest in reaching ideological perfection, as this
would, sooner or later, become functional only to the
re-establishment of power. In the specific case of the
ideology of violence that is being discussed in Italy
today, this becomes functional to the State, consent-
ing the oscillations which allow the latter to become
paternalistically open to discussion (see the Bologna
meeting surrounded by six thousand policemen) one
minute, then rigidly adopting strong means such as
special prisons, police intimidation, special laws and
tribunals the next.
It is not discussions about violence that raise the
level of conflict, nor the debate on which type of vio-
lence is acceptable and which should be refused that
pushes the exploited towards their liberation. No one
can teach anything to those who have been suffering
every kind of repression for centuries, on this argu-
ment. The ideological curtain falls, and the stage re-
mains in its stark reality, that of the class struggle, with
on the one hand the exploited and on the other the
servants of the exploiters walking to their bosses’ heels.
When we speak of the need for violence we are
certainly not doing it to convince the exploited. They
know this very well themselves, and put it into effect
any time they have a chance to do so, with all the
means at their disposition. We speak of the need for
violence in order to point to the enemy with greater
clarity, an enemy that tries to to conceal itself in even
in the guise of brother or comrade.
The discussion on violence is also an element of
great importance in order to recognise all those who,
at the time of words, were so clever at splitting hairs,
proposing models of the “right kind of violence” to
the masses, based on their ideological judgments.
When the level of the conflict heightens for all the
reasons we have mentioned, all such discourses be-
come both useless and determining. They are useless
because the real confrontation renders them out of
date and senseless; determining because they sweep
away the last of the illusions and denounce barren
attempts to recuperate.
As anarchists we are for the social revolution, that
is we are for the immediate and definitive overthrow
of the State. We are for revolutionary logic, which is
above all a destructive logic.
We are for the destruction of the State, which
means we are for the physical (not verbal) destruction
of the institutions and people who represent and bring
about the State. We are against the police, the judg-
es, the bureaucrats, the trade union leaders, and the
bosses. Not only are we against police control, bour-
geois justice, techno-bureaucracy, trade unionism and
capitalism; we are concretely against the people who
bring about these ideological forms in everyday life,
turning them into instruments of repression. And this
being against must translate itself into precise actions
of attack. If we are against the police, we must not let
ourselves be drawn into the ideological trap of those
who, in the name of a misunderstood pluralism or a
retrograde enlightenment, give space and feasibility to
the enemy, affirming that everyone has the right to
express him or herself, therefore also the police — who
when they do express themselves do so with batons. If
we are against all judges and bureaucrats, all bosses and
the trade unions in their service, we must not wait for
someone to tell us: “this boss committed a particular
wrong or this trade union leader is guilty of such and
such, this judge is particularly reactionary”. No! All
of them, without ideological distinction, all the police,
all magistrates, all bureaucrats and all the trades union
leaders, all the bosses and all those in their service are
guilty and should be attacked with any possible means,
at any moment, at whatever the cost.
The moral justification is to be found in the fact
of exploitation itself. Anyone who has been subject-
toward the generalisation...
ed to centuries of the monstrous pressure of work,
anyone who has participated in building the world
knowing that he or she would never be able to en-
joy any of it, does not need to wait for a particular
sign of wickedness from the other side. He or she is
authorised to attack, to strike, and to kill, just as the
bosses and their servants attack, strike and kill at any
time they like.
The problem of strategy
The fact that it is possible to discuss the methods and
the best forms in which to conduct this attack, is a
problem that has nothing to do with the moral foun-
dation that justifies the attack itself.
Any such discussion must therefore become a dis-
cussion on strategy, on the evaluation of means and the
achieving of ends. It cannot be said for example that
“anarchists do not do certain things because...”. This
argument does not make sense. What anarchists do as
such must be evaluated in reality, not in the abstraction
of theory, otherwise anarchism would not make sense,
and become a mystifying ideology like any other.
Certainly strategic choices are not separate from
the fundamental anarchist analysis, which when it is
placed in reality becomes an indispensable part of
revolutionary intervention. But if this same analysis
were to be cut off from the reality of the struggle and
become the product of some illuminated mind and
transformed into a militants’ catechism, it would sim-
ply enter the field of ideology and become functional
to the power it was pretending to attack.
That is why, when anarchists criticise and attack
the claimed revolutionary role of the armed military
parties such as the Red Brigades, the NAP or other
more recent formations, they do it starting from an
anarchist analysis, but one which bears in mind the
real conditions of the class conflict today in Italy. It is
not an anarchist analysis planted in the vague realms of
ideology, that feels obliged to give judgment on mat-
ters which it not only sees as estranged from it, but also
as hostile. It is not enough to be anarchists to say what
is right concerning the struggle that is in the course
of development. It is necessary to be within a concrete
perspective to be available for the revolutionary con-
frontation, to have evaluated well what all that means
for each one of us at a personal level, and at a global
level for the whole of the anarchist movement.
We have often published the documents of the
armed struggle organisations that are operating in our
country. Sometimes, on these very pages, we have also
traced the essential lines of a critique of the closed
military party. But we have not, when these comrades
were persecuted and chased away, claimed to measure
the distance separating them from us. This is because
the distance, without doubt present and significant,
could only have been put down on paper, therefore
resulted in a banal ideological question. This has led to
some misunderstanding by other comrades concern-
ing our position, fuelling an artificial argument that
would have had no reason to exist had these comrades
considered it more expedient to engage themselves
in first person in underlining these differences which
they only identified at an ideological level.
Now however things have changed, and the time
has come to raise our voices loud and strong, so that
even the deaf can hear us and those who pretend
to be deaf see themselves shown up in front of the
serious comrades who really want to struggle for the
liberation of all the exploited and for anarchy.
The reason we have given space to the phenom-
enon of armed struggle over the past few years and
supported the need to defend these points however
contradictory and dangerous they might be, was be-
cause we felt the road undertaken was an important
one. We felt that this road could — which in fact has
happened — take another direction, that of mass armed
struggle, of generalised illegal behaviour which could
deny and finally eliminate the very conditions of the
initial clandestine struggle based on the closed mili-
tary party. To put ourselves against this behaviour from
the very beginning, as so many have done, would have
been a contribution to the State repression against
them, and would have prevented any development in
a libertarian direction, something we considered pos-
sible from the start. By this we do not mean a libertar-
ian development in the closed military parties, but the
development of armed struggle in general and of all
the comrades who work in this direction.
Disillusionment is pushing many people to a
practice of generalised illegal behaviour. This be-
haviour materialises either at the workplace, or in
the field of unemployment and criminalisation. This
phenomenon goes far beyond the strategic perspec-
tives of any closed military party, no matter how big
and effective it might be. The Red Brigades, the NAP,
Prima Linea, and many other organisations, have
nothing left to say apart from their own self criti-
cism. Either they integrate their actions within the
plan of generalised armed conflict, which is hap-
pening slowly, or they will be destined to extinction.
Our task is also this. Just as we contributed to check-
ing the stupid and malevolant criticisms and to avoid-
ing the global repressive tactic hoped for by the State,
today, as anarchists we must continue to give our con-
tribution to the clarification of this process of gen-
eralised armed conflict, singling out, criticising and
attacking any attempt — no matter where it comes
from — to impose strategic and political models which
the daily practice of struggle have declared out of date.
It is within the perspective of generalised mass armed
toward the generalisation...
struggle that the insurrection takes on a libertarian
meaning, and marks the definitive critique of any
‘closed’ attempt to organise the management of the
Generalised armed conflict is the natural out-
come of a situation that is getting worse every day.
The exploited are beginning to point out this ne-
cessity in a series of anti-institutional actions that
are continually spreading. The isolated acts of pun-
ishment carried out by minority clandestine groups
against some of those responsible for exploitation are
coming to be accepted with satisfaction and approved
by the mass. Attempts by the unions to organise pro-
test strikes against such actions have had, at the FIAT
for example, a very small number of participants.
There is no doubt that today the movement of
the exploited, in its various forms and all its con-
tradictions, is capable of attacking capital and the
State structures that defend it. There is no doubt that
this attack is actually happening. The only thing that
seems strange to us is that at this point in the struggle,
steps backward are being made, shown in the persis-
tence in using instruments (such as the armed party)
that although they may have been effective in some
way yesterday, are now anachronistic and threaten to
become inward looking.
As anarchist revolutionaries we know very well
that in this phase of class confrontation clandestine
forms of resistance are still necessary. We know just
as well that at the same time this presents negative
aspects, that is, they risk becoming authoritarian.
It is our task to be careful in order to stop this in-
volution, to fight so that the confrontation becomes
generalised in its insurrectional form which guaran-
tees it not only as anarchist strategy, but also as a lib-
When speaking of insurrection in the past, many
comrades immediately brought out historical ex-
amples: the Matese gang, the Pontelungo conspiracy,
and other such events, accusing us of “revolutionary
romanticism” or of being “idealists”, or of being “ob-
jectively dangerous”. To us this all seems ridiculous.
Insurrection is the attempt made with revolu-
tion in sight. As anarchists, insurrection remains our
privileged element, but this insurrection must be
generalised, at least to the level of the widest possible
practice of illegal behaviour. This is what is actually
happening. What should we be feeling sorry about?
Maybe we should complain about the fact that the
contradictions of capital and the revolutionary claims
of the exploited are preventing us from carrying on
our sweet dreams?
Let us take heart. If hard times are ahead of us
we know how we shall face them. It is precisely in
these times that the sheep discard their wolves’ cloth-
ing. The time has come to put the chatter aside, and
toward the generalisation...
to fight. Let us take courage and go ahead. And then,
because as always the best form of defence is attack,
let us begin by attacking first. There is no lack of ob-
jectives. May the bosses and their servants feel how
hard it can become to carry on their jobs as exploiters.
On the Problem of Armed Struggle
An important element that has emerged repeatedly in
anarchists’ analyses of armed struggle has been the fol-
lowing: as armed struggle is the culminating moment
ot the revolution, before engaging in it we must be
sure that the phase we are passing through is at least a
pre-revolutionary one. In the case of the contrary we
would end up being crushed by repression and every-
thing else, and the political work that that the move-
ment has always carried out, such as counter-informa-
tion and propaganda, would be destroyed.
We feel it is important to clarify this position, un-
derlining a number of points:
a) analyses are based on the personal positions of
the comrades who work them out, and this could be
b) even if it does not appear officially, the posi-
tions of the organisations these comrades belong to
affect the analyses themselves;
c) there is a logical error in stating that armed
struggle must await the pre-revolutionary phase, as it
also plays a part in the creation of that phase;
d) there can be no one single definition of what
the pre-revolutionary phase is.
...The first two points should be borne in mind
in view of the fact that many of the analyses being
put forward today are those of older comrades whose
political awareness comes from another stage in the
class struggle. Younger comrades, whose daily lives are
often more anti-authoritarian than those of the ones
writing the analyses, often refuse to do this kind of
work, or find that they lack the instruments to do so
due to the liberalisation of schooling. The analyses
put forward by these comrades is therefore their ac-
tions themselves, and their behaviour has put many
organisational structures in crisis.
It is no longer fashionable to speak in the name
of an organisation, but this does not mean that analy-
ses reflect the ideas of the individual comrade that
wrote them. They can reflect the strategic positions
of organisations that these comrades constantly re-
fer to either in theory or in practice. The longer the
organisation procrastinates, the further off the “pre-
revolutionary phase” will be.
We come to the third point: the statement that
armed struggle necessitates a pre-revolutionary phase
contains a logical contradiction. Implicit in this state-
ment is an over-evaluation of the military-type or-
onthe problem of armed struggle
ganisation compared with other forms of armed in-
tervention against repression. Given the level of the
conflict at the present time, it is in the interests of
repression to restrict the spreading of armed actions,
and at the same time he able to point at a specific
organisation as representing the phenomenon in its
entirety. This can then be used at a spectacular level
in order to justify repression.
In substance there is no reason to accept this in-
terpretation elaborated by the political police. The
actions of the so-called historic armed organizations
are only a minimal part of the phenomenon of armed
struggle, even if they manage to be the most spec-
tacular action. In reality this phenomenon consists
of a vast arc of illegal and anti-authoritarian behav-
iour which is threatening to spread uncontrollably.
The State knows this very well, as do the political
and pseudo-revolutionary (but substantially counter-
revolutionary) groups that are trying to jump on the
band-wagon. To reduce the problem of armed strug-
gle in Italy today to what is being done by groups
such as the Red Brigades, would be absurd. That
would be to repeat, using all the weight of revolu-
tionary analysis, the schemes of reasoning that are so
useful to capitalism. It is this anti-authoritarian illegal
behaviour that signals what is defined the pre-revolu-
tionary phase rather than, as some maintain, that it is
this phase that renders such behaviour rational.
Something should also be said concerning the
problem that a single definition of the pre-revolution-
ary phase is not possible. Some comrades imagine that
it must always resemble the conditions of the storm-
ing of the Winter Palace, and anything other than that
must only spring from a worsening crisis in capital-
ism’s management of the economy. Others think that
first an imbalance must develop at international level,
or there must be a change in interests in the areas into
which the world is divided. These points are all valid,
but taken individually they cannot put in doubt the
fact that our revolutionary task is that of pushing the
exploited towards rebellion and the struggle against
the exploiters, not to daydream about the possibility
of the victory of our organisations in the case of con-
flict. Possibly it has not yet been understood where
the revolutionary task of anarchists should lie. How
is it that some still think in terms of the name, the
organisation, whereby Azione Rivoluzionaria, by the
mere fact of having put a beautiful phrase of Durruti
at the beginning of their most significant document,
should consider themselves to be the only possible al-
ternative to the Red Brigades? Perhaps it has not been
understood that the only alternative is that of gener-
alised armed struggle pushed to an insurrectional level,
something far more meaningful than the greatest feats
of the historic organisations.
on the problem of armed struggle
Revolt is a fact that concerns individuals and organ-
isations. It is not the revolution, but is what makes
the revolution possible. Without the continual revolt
of conscious individuals there will be nothing but
the betraying revolution of the neo-bosses using the
organs of the class struggle. And revolt is conscious-
ness of oneself, one's own involvement, the sacrifices
we must be capable of making, the hopes, the joys,
the advances and the possible dangers. Revolt is what
characterises the life of each one of us.
It is in moments of great social tension, when
the contradictions of the capitalist structure explode,
that the consequences of the little compromises and
weaknesses we ended up accepting in the period
when nothing was happening emerge. It is opportun-
ism that has forged its path among us, opportunism
that finds cunning words to disguise itself, to smuggle
its way in as a refined revolutionary tactic.
Forward comrades! Let us begin to call on what
is inside us, in our relationships with the comrades
closest to us, in our relationship with the organisa-
tions that we belong to.
It is not so difficult. The enemy facing us is do-
ing so with such harshness that he is not difficult to
identify, and if we identify him we must strike, and if
we strike we must be ready to pay the consequences
of our actions. These are the tasks awaiting us.
May our discourses be action, and may other
comrades learn to esteem us for what we do and not
what we represent as a tradition, and may the State
learn to fear anarchists once again, not as inheritors
of Ravachol or Henry, Durruti or Makhno, but be-
cause they are capable of giving life to organisations
of attack, and are not just groups of social scientists
who produce brilliant analyses on the problems of
Today we have some possibilities in the front line
of the revolutionary conflict. We have not made any
serious mistakes in the recent past to put us in a bad
light in the eyes of the exploited
Perhaps this is because what we have done has
been too insignificant to have left any room for seri-
ous mistakes, but all the same we have not made any.
At the present time we can still be a point of reference,
a point of coagulation both for the exploited and
for many militant revolutionaries who come from
authoritarian organisations and have lived through
the great trauma of the errors of these organizations.
We will not repeat the mistakes we made in 1968.
We do not accept confrontation on the abstract basis
of endless theoretical discussions. We are measuring
ourselves in the concrete field of action.
We are not demonstrating the fear that usually
leads us to close in on ourselves because with the
authoritarians, the Marxists, there is nothing that can
be done. The past few months have shown the devel-
opment of a strong anti-authoritarian consciousness
in many groups of militants, as well as in some strata
of the exploited, particularly those subjected to pro-
cesses of criminalisation: we are not contributing to
extinguishing this consciousness.
Let us prepare for every possible relationship
Confrontation on an abstract basis of endless theo-
retical discussions. We are measuring ourselves in the
concrete field of action.
Let us prepare for every possible relationship. We
are anarchists, and as such are for anti-authoritarian
action. But we believe in the need to attack power
right away, at all levels and with every possible means.
Here we can measure ourselves and find a possible
point of collaboration.
Recent experiences which come from the level
of social conflict in Italy today tell us that the au-
thoritarian strategy is a losing one. These experiences
have been points of reference not only for us, but also
for many other comrades. This is not the time for
theoretical debate; it is time to single out the objec-
tives to be attacked amongst the great counter-revo-
It is not the technical instrument we use which
qualifies an action as violent or not, but rather its
perspective in the confrontation with the class en-
emy. To employ armed struggle means essentially to
be ready to respond to State violence and exploita-
tion blow for blow at every level. It means passing
from the purely defensive phase to one of attack in
order to strike the enemy’s centres of organisation
and repression. At the same time it must be capable
of indicating to all the exploited where the true
enemy is concealed, and that it is possible to strike
it, it is not indistinguishable nor invulnerable.
from “Anti-Institutional Movement,
Armed Struggle — Some Reflections"